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Abstract

Objective—To determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots.

Animals—20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—A blood sample (0.5 mL) was collected from the right jugular vein of each parrot and placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube. Samples were centrifuged, and plasma was harvested and frozen at −30°C. Samples were thawed, and plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The mean value was calculated for the 2 osmolality measurements.

Results—Plasma osmolality values were normally distributed, with a mean ± SD of 326.0 ± 6.878 mOsm/kg. The equations (2 × [Na+ + K+]) + (glucose/18), which resulted in bias of 2.3333 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of −7.0940 to 11.7606 mOsm/kg, and (2 × [Na+ + K+]) + (uric acid concentration/16.8) + (glucose concentration/18), which resulted in bias of 5.8117 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of −14.6640 to 3.0406 mOsm/kg, yielded calculated values that were in good agreement with the measured osmolality.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of large amounts of hypotonic fluids can have catastrophic consequences. Osmolality of the plasma from parrots in this study was significantly higher than that of commercially available prepackaged fluids. Therefore, such fluids should be used with caution in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots as well as other psittacines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the estimation of osmolality has the same clinical value in psittacines as it does in other animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 μL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at −30°C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concen-trations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated.

Results—None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, −94.9 mg/dL [LOA, −148.0 to −41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, −52 mg/dL [LOA, −107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, −78.9 mg/dL [LOA, −137.2 to −20.6 mg/dL]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research