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  • Author or Editor: Dennis B. DeNicola x
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Objective—To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in the urinary bladder epithelium of clinically normal dogs and in transitional cell carcinoma cells of dogs.

Animals—21 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 8 dogs with clinically normal urinary bladders.

Procedure—COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated by use of isoform-specific antibodies with standard immunohistochemical methods.

Results—COX-1, but not COX-2, was constitutively expressed in normal urinary bladder epithelium; however, COX-2 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium in primary tumors and in metastatic lesions of all 21 dogs and in new proliferating blood vessels in 3 dogs. Also, COX-1 was expressed in the neoplastic cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lack of expression of COX-2 in normal bladder epithelium and its substantial expression in transitional cell carcinoma cells suggest that this isoform may be involved in tumor cell growth. Inhibition of COX-2 is a likely mechanism of the antineoplastic effects of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:478–481)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the association among clinical signs, results of cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and measures of pulmonary function in horses with inflammatory respiratory disease.

Animals—9 healthy horses, 5 horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD), and 9 horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Procedure—Clinical examination, lung function tests, and BAL were performed on each horse.

Results—Standard lung mechanics of horses with exacerbated COPD differed significantly from those of healthy horses; however, there were few differences among horses with IAD, horses with COPD during remission, and healthy horses. Most variables for forced expiration (FE) in horses with COPD or IAD differed significantly from those for healthy horses. Results of clinical examination had low to moderate sensitivity and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (range, 67 to 80%). Results of FE tests had high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (79 to 100%), and results of standard lung mechanics tests had low sensitivity and predictive values (22 to 69%). Percentage of neutrophils in BAL fluid was highly sensitive (100%) but moderately specific (64%) for a diagnosis of COPD.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical examination is moderately accurate for establishing a diagnosis of COPD. Forced expiration tests can specifically detect early signs of airway obstruction in horses with COPD and IAD that may otherwise be inapparent. Cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid allows early detection of inflammatory respiratory disease, but it is not specific for COPD. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 538–546)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research