Objective—To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase
(COX)-1 and COX-2 in the urinary bladder epithelium of
clinically normal dogs and in transitional cell carcinoma
cells of dogs.
Animals—21 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of
the urinary bladder and 8 dogs with clinically normal
Procedure—COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated by
use of isoform-specific antibodies with standard
Results—COX-1, but not COX-2, was constitutively
expressed in normal urinary bladder epithelium; however,
COX-2 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium
in primary tumors and in metastatic lesions of all 21
dogs and in new proliferating blood vessels in 3 dogs.
Also, COX-1 was expressed in the neoplastic cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lack of
expression of COX-2 in normal bladder epithelium and
its substantial expression in transitional cell carcinoma
cells suggest that this isoform may be involved in
tumor cell growth. Inhibition of COX-2 is a likely
mechanism of the antineoplastic effects of non
steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate the association among clinical
signs, results of cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar
lavage (BAL) fluid, and measures of pulmonary
function in horses with inflammatory respiratory
Animals—9 healthy horses, 5 horses with inflammatory
airway disease (IAD), and 9 horses with chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Procedure—Clinical examination, lung function
tests, and BAL were performed on each horse.
Results—Standard lung mechanics of horses with
exacerbated COPD differed significantly from those
of healthy horses; however, there were few differences
among horses with IAD, horses with COPD
during remission, and healthy horses. Most variables
for forced expiration (FE) in horses with COPD or IAD
differed significantly from those for healthy horses.
Results of clinical examination had low to moderate
sensitivity and predictive values for a diagnosis of
COPD (range, 67 to 80%). Results of FE tests had
high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for a
diagnosis of COPD (79 to 100%), and results of standard
lung mechanics tests had low sensitivity and
predictive values (22 to 69%). Percentage of neutrophils
in BAL fluid was highly sensitive (100%) but
moderately specific (64%) for a diagnosis of COPD.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical examination
is moderately accurate for establishing a diagnosis
of COPD. Forced expiration tests can specifically
detect early signs of airway obstruction in horses
with COPD and IAD that may otherwise be inapparent.
Cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid allows early
detection of inflammatory respiratory disease, but it
is not specific for COPD. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: