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Coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed in 19 llamas (California, 9; Arizona, 10). All but 1 had a disseminated form, with pyogranulomas principally in the lungs, thoracic lymph nodes, liver, and kidneys. However, lesions were found in tissue specimens from most organ systems. Antemortem diagnosis was based on radiographic evaluation of the lungs, serologic testing, or presence of spherules of Coccidioides immitis in pyogranuloma aspirates, skin scrapings, or biopsy specimens.

Animals residing in endemic areas of southwestern United States are at risk, and llamas appear to be highly susceptible to developing disseminated forms of coccidioidomycosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coccidioides immitis in healthy horses residing in an area in which the organism is endemic.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—197 healthy horses (in which coccidioidomycosis had not been previously diagnosed) that resided in an area of Arizona in which coccidioidomycosis is endemic.

Procedure—Of the horses evaluated at the Arizona Equine Medical and Surgical Center during a 6-month period, 197 with no clinical signs of coccidioidomycosis were randomly selected for inclusion in the study; sera were evaluated for IgM and IgG antibodies against C immitis via an immunodiffusion assay (IgGpositive samples were assessed quantitatively). Within 6 months, recheck titer evaluations were attempted for all seropositive horses.

Results—Serum antibodies against C immitis were detected in 8 of 197 horses (seroprevalence, 4.06%). Results of serologic assays were positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM antibodies in 7 horses and positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies in 1 horse; reciprocal serum IgG antibody titers were low (none > 8). Follow-up serologic data were obtained from 5 horses; compared with initial findings, horses had become seronegative or titers were unchanged or decreased. Duration of residence in the area was significantly shorter for seropositive horses than for seronegative horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum antibodies against C immitis may rarely be detected in healthy horses residing in an area in which the disease is endemic; any horse with a detectable serum antibody titer should be reevaluated after an interval of at least 3 weeks. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1888–1892)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic abnormalities in dogs with coccidioidomycosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—24 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical information and results of clinicopathologic testing were obtained from medical records. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed to characterize abnormalities.

Results—Dogs ranged from 1 to 10 years old at the time of diagnosis, with 12 dogs being between 1 and 3 years old. Historical complaints included cough, lameness, signs of head or neck pain, and difficulty breathing. Mild anemia, neutrophilia, and monocytosis were common. All dogs had hypoalbuminemia, and 8 of 15 had hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs of 19 dogs were reviewed. Pulmonary infiltrates were seen in 13 dogs, with an interstitial pattern of infiltration being most common. Hilar lymphadenopathy was seen radiographically in 10 dogs. Serum from 20 dogs was tested for antibodies against Coccidioides immitis. One dog was positive for IgM antibodies, 5 were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies, and 14 were positive for IgG antibodies. Quantitative IgG titers measured in 14 dogs ranged from 1:2 to 1:128 (median and mode, 1:32). In 6 dogs, histologic examination of biopsy samples revealed fungal spherules ranging from 8 to 70 μm in diameter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in dogs, coccidioidomycosis may be associated with a wide spectrum of nonspecific respiratory and musculoskeletal abnormalities. The chronic nature of the disease makes diagnosis difficult, even in regions in which the organism is endemic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:461–466)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To examine the clinical response to topical administration of clotrimazole in dogs with nasal aspergillosis, to compare effect of surgically placed versus nonsurgically placed catheters used for administration on outcome, and to examine whether subjective scoring of computed tomographic images can predict outcome.


Retrospective case series.


60 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.


Information including signalment, history, diagnostics, treatment method, and outcome was retrieved from medical records of dogs with nasal aspergillosis treated between 1990 and 1996 at the University of California School of Veterinary Medicine or cooperating referral practices. Final outcome was determined by telephone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians. Images obtained before treatment were subjectively assessed to develop an algorithm for predicting outcome.


Clotrimazole solution (1 %) was infused during a 1-hour period via catheters surgically placed in the frontal sinus and nose (27 dogs) and via nonsurgically placed catheters in the nose (18). An additional 15 dogs received 2 to 4 infusions by either route. Topical administration of clotrimazole resulted in resolution of clinical disease in 65% of dogs after 1 treatment and 87% of dogs after one or more treatments. The scoring system correctly classified dogs with unfavorable and favorable responses 71 to 78% and 79 to 93% of the time, respectively.

Clinical Implications

Topical administration of clotrimazole, using either technique, was an effective treatment for nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Use of non-invasive intranasal infusion of clotrimazole eliminated the need for surgical trephination of frontal sinuses in many dogs and was associated with fewer complications.(J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:501-506)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association