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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated for left hind limb lameness of 2 months' duration. The lameness was first noticed during a rodeo bucking performance, immediately after the bull appeared to land inappropriately on the affected limb.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination findings revealed left hind limb lameness, ataxia, and left-sided epaxial muscle atrophy. Palpation per rectum along the lumbar portion of the vertebral column revealed evidence of exostosis of the ventral aspect. High-definition infrared thermal imaging revealed a pattern of reduced skin temperature in the area of the left lumbar and gluteal regions suggestive of a disruption in the sympathetic control of peripheral blood flow. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed a focal area of increased radioisotope uptake on the left ventrolateral aspect of the L2–3 intervertebral joint. A presumptive diagnosis of ventrolateral vertebral spondylosis resulting in spinal nerve impingement was made.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 200 mg of methylprednisolone was epidurally injected at the site of the lesion, and treatment with polysulfated glycosaminoglycans was initiated (500 mg, IM, every 4 days for 7 treatments, then monthly thereafter). The lameness and ataxia observed in the left hind limb resolved within 1 week after treatment began. Subsequently, the bull was discharged from the hospital and was used successfully for semen collection and live-cover breeding.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of thermography for the bull of this report provided additional insight into neurovascular physiologic function that classical imaging modalities are unable to provide and, when combined with nuclear scintigraphy, aided in identifying the most critical lesion in a complex clinical case.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Twenty horses with 30 lesions were studied to evaluate the effects of intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin in sesame oil on equine sarcoids (n = 19), squamous cell carcinomas (n = 7), and squamous cell papillomas (n = 4). Treatment consisted of 4 sessions of intratumoral cisplatin chemotherapy at 2-week intervals. A controlled-release formulation of cisplatin in sesame oil was used to limit drug egress from the injection site. Mean dosage per session was 0.97 (±0.17, sem) mg of cisplatin/cm3 of tumor tissue treated for tumor volumes ranging from 10 to 20 cm3. Dosage tended to be slightly higher for smaller tumors and slightly lower for larger tumors. Tumor regression was observed in all horses. Complete response was observed in 18 of the sarcoids, 5 of the squamous cell carcinomas, and 4 of the squamous cell papillomas. The mean relapse-free interval was 21.6 and 14 months in horses with sarcoid and carcinoma/papilloma, respectively. The 1-year relapse-free rates were 87 and 65% for equine sarcoid and carcinoma/papilloma, respectively. In horses with relapse, 70% had tumor recurrence outside the treated field. Cisplatin-related local toxicosis was minimal. Intratumoral cisplatin chemotherapy was found to be a practical and effective treatment of sarcoid and squamous cell carcinoma/papilloma in horses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of 3 plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACiso) and cardiovascular variables in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 6 adult parrots.

PROCEDURES In phase 1, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The MACiso was determined for each bird by use of a bracketing method and supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV, and blood samples were collected over time to measure plasma fentanyl concentrations for pharmacokinetic calculations. In phase 2, pharmacokinetic values for individual birds were used for administration of fentanyl to achieve target plasma concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL. At each concentration, MACiso and cardiovascular variables were determined. Data were analyzed with mixed-effects multilevel linear regression analysis.

RESULTS Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations were 0 ng/mL, 5.01 ± 1.53 ng/mL, 12.12 ± 3.58 ng/mL, and 24.93 ± 4.13 ng/mL, and MACiso values were 2.09 ± 0.17%, 1.45 ± 0.32%, 1.34 ± 0.31%, and 0.95 ± 0.14% for fentanyl target concentrations of 0, 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL, respectively. Fentanyl significantly decreased MACiso in a dose-dependent manner. Heart rate and blood pressure significantly decreased at all fentanyl doses, compared with values for MACiso at 0 ng of fentanyl/mL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fentanyl significantly decreased the MACiso in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, but this was accompanied by a depressive effect on heart rate and blood pressure that would need to be considered for application of this technique in clinical settings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To quantify some components of prepurchase evaluations in horses, records from 134 evaluations performed during a 2-year period were reviewed and the outcome was determined via telephone follow-up interview. Sixty-two percent of the prepurchase evaluations had been performed at the clinic and 38% had been performed in the field by the ambulatory service. All evaluations included physical and lameness examinations, whereas radiography (49%), endoscopy (15%), nerve blocking (5%), transrectal palpation (3%), hematologic analysis (2%), electrocardiography (2%), drug testing for analgesic agents (2%), and ultrasonography of the flexor tendons (1%) were not always performed. Fifty-nine percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were radiographed, compared with 33% of horses evaluated in the field (P < 0.05).

Thirty-seven percent of horses evaluated were judged serviceable for their intended use. Thirty-five percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were assessed to be serviceable, compared with 41% of those evaluated in the field (P < 0.05). Horses used for pleasure riding (48%) tended to be considered serviceable more often than horses used for more athletic endeavors (3-day eventing, 33%; hunter/jumper, 24%; show, 31%; dressage, 30%). The most common basis for finding a horse unserviceable was lameness (88%).

On the basis of a telephone interview, horses were divided into 5 groups: horses determined unserviceable on evaluation and not purchased (n = 40); horses determined unserviceable on evaluation, purchased, and then found serviceable on follow-up interview (n = 35); horses determined unserviceable on evaluation, purchased, and then found unserviceable on follow-up interview (n = 9); horses determined serviceable on evaluation, purchased, and found serviceable on follow-up interview (n = 42); and horses determined serviceable on evaluation, purchased, and found unserviceable on follow-up interview (n = 8).

The buyer and seller were present at the evaluation in 34% of cases. The buyer alone was present in 57% of cases, the seller alone in 4% of cases, whereas neither was present in 6% of cases. The potential buyer had used the horse for its intended purpose prior to the prepurchase evaluation in 39% of cases for a mean time of 20.5 days, but this did not appear to affect the serviceability of the horse on follow-up evaluation. Five horses that were leased for > 6 months prior to purchase were all serviceable on follow-up interview, irrespective of the findings at the time of the prepurchase evaluation.

There was a tendency for the value of horses examined at the clinic to be higher than those evaluated by the ambulatory service. The price paid by the buyer was reduced through negotiations on the basis of the prepurchase evaluation in 6% of cases.

Lameness was seen only in horses within the unserviceable group. Lameness tended to be seen more often in horses valued > $2,500 (61%, 46/75) than in horses valued ≤ $2,500 (48%, 28/59). Lameness was associated with 92% (22/24) of horses valued at > $2,500 within the group judged to be unserviceable and not purchased.

Radiography was performed to investigate a specific lameness in 24% (32/134) of evaluations and for survey purposes in 25% (34/134) of evaluations. Of horses radiographed within the unserviceable group, radiography commonly was performed for specific lameness (84%, 32/38) and rarely for survey purposes (24%, 9/38), whereas only survey radiographs were obtained from the serviceable group because no horses exhibited a specific lameness. Radiography was significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to have been performed in horses valued > $2,500 (65%, 49/75) than in those valued < $2,500 (29%, 17/59), and this trend was reflected in all categories. For survey radiographs, the combination of tarsi and bilateral distal forelimbs was the most commonly radiographed area (44%). Bilateral distal forelimbs alone were the second most commonly radiographed area (41%).

A written report summarizing the findings of the evaluation was furnished in 24% of cases. At the time of follow-up interview, 75% of buyers indicated that they would have liked a written report.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare effectiveness and complications associated with peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia with bupivacaine in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and received a peribulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (1.5 mL), iopamidol (0.5 mL), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL) or retrobulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.75 mL) and iopamidol (0.25 mL) in a crossover study with ≥ 2 weeks between treatments. The contralateral eye was the control. Injectate distribution was evaluated with CT. After atipamezole administration, periocular and corneal sensations, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular reflexes and appearance were evaluated for 24 hours.

Results—All peribulbar and 3 of 6 retrobulbar injections resulted in CT evidence of intraconal injectate. Corneal sensation and periocular skin sensation were absent or significantly reduced relative to that for control eyes for 3 hours after peribulbar injection. Mean ± SD IOP immediately after injection was significantly higher for eyes with peribulbar injections (33 ± 12 mm Hg) than for control eyes or eyes with retrobulbar injections (both 14 ± 4 mm Hg) but 10 minutes later decreased to 18 ± 3 mm Hg. Exophthalmos, chemosis, and ptosis were evident in most injected eyes, and irritation was evident in 3 of 6 peribulbar-injected and 1 of 6 retrobulbar-injected eyes. All conditions resolved within 14 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Peribulbar injection resulted in intraconal deposition of bupivicaine in a higher percentage of cats than did retrobulbar injection and induced notable anesthesia relative to that for the control eye; however, IOP increased temporarily.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the disposition of fentanyl citrate after a single IV injection in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks and 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined for each bird by use of the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV. Arterial (red-tailed hawks) or jugular venous (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) blood samples were obtained immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 480 minutes (red-tailed hawks) and 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) after fentanyl administration.

RESULTS A 3-compartment and a 2-compartment model best described fentanyl pharmacokinetics in red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, respectively. Median apparent volume of the central compartment and volume of distribution at steady state were 222 mL/kg and 987 mL/kg, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 5,108 mL/kg and 13,079 mL/kg, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Median clearance and elimination half-life were 8.9 mL/min/kg and 90.22 minutes, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 198.8 mL/min/kg and 51.18 minutes, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetic results for fentanyl in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots indicated large differences and should strongly discourage extrapolation of doses between these 2 species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research