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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the disposition of fentanyl citrate after a single IV injection in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks and 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined for each bird by use of the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV. Arterial (red-tailed hawks) or jugular venous (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) blood samples were obtained immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 480 minutes (red-tailed hawks) and 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) after fentanyl administration.

RESULTS A 3-compartment and a 2-compartment model best described fentanyl pharmacokinetics in red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, respectively. Median apparent volume of the central compartment and volume of distribution at steady state were 222 mL/kg and 987 mL/kg, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 5,108 mL/kg and 13,079 mL/kg, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Median clearance and elimination half-life were 8.9 mL/min/kg and 90.22 minutes, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 198.8 mL/min/kg and 51.18 minutes, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetic results for fentanyl in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots indicated large differences and should strongly discourage extrapolation of doses between these 2 species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of 3 plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACiso) and cardiovascular variables in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 6 adult parrots.

PROCEDURES In phase 1, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The MACiso was determined for each bird by use of a bracketing method and supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV, and blood samples were collected over time to measure plasma fentanyl concentrations for pharmacokinetic calculations. In phase 2, pharmacokinetic values for individual birds were used for administration of fentanyl to achieve target plasma concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL. At each concentration, MACiso and cardiovascular variables were determined. Data were analyzed with mixed-effects multilevel linear regression analysis.

RESULTS Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations were 0 ng/mL, 5.01 ± 1.53 ng/mL, 12.12 ± 3.58 ng/mL, and 24.93 ± 4.13 ng/mL, and MACiso values were 2.09 ± 0.17%, 1.45 ± 0.32%, 1.34 ± 0.31%, and 0.95 ± 0.14% for fentanyl target concentrations of 0, 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL, respectively. Fentanyl significantly decreased MACiso in a dose-dependent manner. Heart rate and blood pressure significantly decreased at all fentanyl doses, compared with values for MACiso at 0 ng of fentanyl/mL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fentanyl significantly decreased the MACiso in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, but this was accompanied by a depressive effect on heart rate and blood pressure that would need to be considered for application of this technique in clinical settings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare effectiveness and complications associated with peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia with bupivacaine in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and received a peribulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (1.5 mL), iopamidol (0.5 mL), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL) or retrobulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.75 mL) and iopamidol (0.25 mL) in a crossover study with ≥ 2 weeks between treatments. The contralateral eye was the control. Injectate distribution was evaluated with CT. After atipamezole administration, periocular and corneal sensations, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular reflexes and appearance were evaluated for 24 hours.

Results—All peribulbar and 3 of 6 retrobulbar injections resulted in CT evidence of intraconal injectate. Corneal sensation and periocular skin sensation were absent or significantly reduced relative to that for control eyes for 3 hours after peribulbar injection. Mean ± SD IOP immediately after injection was significantly higher for eyes with peribulbar injections (33 ± 12 mm Hg) than for control eyes or eyes with retrobulbar injections (both 14 ± 4 mm Hg) but 10 minutes later decreased to 18 ± 3 mm Hg. Exophthalmos, chemosis, and ptosis were evident in most injected eyes, and irritation was evident in 3 of 6 peribulbar-injected and 1 of 6 retrobulbar-injected eyes. All conditions resolved within 14 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Peribulbar injection resulted in intraconal deposition of bupivicaine in a higher percentage of cats than did retrobulbar injection and induced notable anesthesia relative to that for the control eye; however, IOP increased temporarily.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research