Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: David Eshar x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate efficacy and safety of anesthesia with dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) in five-striped palm squirrels (Funambulus pennantii).

ANIMALS

8 male squirrels.

PROCEDURES

Squirrels were anesthetized with DKM (dexmedetomidine, 0.1 mg/kg; ketamine hydrochloride, 30 mg/kg; and midazolam, 0.75 mg/kg) administered IM. Atipamezole (0.15 mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg) were administered IM 40 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Vital signs and responses were recorded every 5 minutes during anesthesia.

RESULTS

Anesthetic induction and recovery from anesthesia were rapid and without complications in all squirrels. Median anesthetic induction time was 67.5 seconds (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 5.5 seconds), and mean ± SD recovery time after drug reversal was 147 ± 79 seconds. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature significantly decreased during the anesthetic period. All squirrels became hypothermic by 40 minutes after induction. The righting reflex was absent during the 40-minute anesthetic period in all squirrels, with variable responses for the palpebral reflex, jaw tone, forelimb withdrawal reflex, and hind limb withdrawal reflex. Only 2 of 8 squirrels had loss of the limb withdrawal reflex in both the forelimbs and hind limbs from anesthetic induction to 25 minutes after induction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

DKM appeared to provide safe and effective anesthesia in five-striped palm squirrels, but oxygen and thermal support were indicated. At the doses administered, deep surgical anesthesia was not consistently achieved, and anesthetic depth of individual squirrels must be determined before surgical procedures are performed in palm squirrels anesthetized with this drug combination.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare blood glucose concentrations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) measured by use of a variety of portable analyzers with results from a laboratory biochemistry analyzer.

SAMPLE Venous blood samples (3 mL) obtained from each of 16 healthy black-tailed prairie dogs.

PROCEDURES A portion of each blood sample was used to measure glucose concentrations by use of an amperometric human point-of-care glucometer and a colorimetric species-specific portable blood glucose meter designed for veterinary use with both canine (code 5) and feline (code 7) settings. The remainder of each blood sample was placed into 2 tubes (one contained lithium heparin and the other contained no anticoagulant). A portable veterinary chemistry analyzer (PVCA) and a handheld analyzer were used to measure glucose concentration in heparinized blood. Serum glucose concentration was measured in the remaining portion by use of a biochemistry analyzer. A general linear mixed models approach was used to compare glucose concentrations and measurement bias obtained with the various measurement methods.

RESULTS Measurement bias and differences in mean glucose concentrations were apparent with all measurement methods. In particular, the veterinary glucometer, whether used on the canine or feline setting, overestimated mean glucose concentrations, whereas the human glucometer, PVCA, and handheld analyzer underestimated mean glucose concentrations relative to the concentration obtained with the biochemistry analyzer.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that none of the measurement methods provided consistently accurate blood glucose concentrations of black-tailed prairie dogs, compared with values determined with a biochemistry analyzer.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of a dexmedetomidine-midazolam-ketamine (DMK) combination administered IM to captive red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria).

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult red-footed tortoises.

PROCEDURES

In a prospective experimental study, DMK (0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg, respectively) was administered IM as separate injections into the right antebrachium. Atipamezole (0.5 mg/kg, IM) and flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg, SC) were administered into the left antebrachium 60 minutes later. Times to the first treatment response and maximal treatment effect after DMK administration and time to recovery after reversal agent administration were recorded. Vital signs and reflexes or responses to stimuli were assessed and recorded at predetermined intervals.

RESULTS

DMK treatment produced deep sedation or light anesthesia for ≥ 20 minutes in all tortoises. Induction and recovery were rapid, with no complications noted. Median times to first response, maximum effect, and recovery were 4.5, 35, and 14.5 minutes, respectively. Two tortoises required additional reversal agent administration but recovered < 20 minutes after the repeated injections. Mean heart and respiratory rates decreased significantly over time. All animals lost muscle tone in the neck and limbs from 35 to 55 minutes after DMK injection, but other variables including palpebral reflexes, responses to mild noxious stimuli (eg, toe pinching, tail pinching, and saline ([0.9 NaCl] solution injection), and ability to intubate were inconsistent.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

DMK administration produced deep sedation or light anesthesia with no adverse effects in healthy adult red-footed tortoises. At the doses administered, deep surgical anesthesia was not consistently achieved. Anesthetic depth must be carefully evaluated before performing painful procedures in red-footed tortoises with this DMK protocol.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of storage duration and temperature on biochemical analytes in plasma from red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

ANIMALS 8 red-eared sliders.

PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected. Plasma was harvested and analyzed at room temperature (approx 23°C; time = 1 hour) and then fractioned into 0.1-mL aliquots that were stored at room temperature or were refrigerated (4°C) or frozen (−20°C). Biochemical analysis of stored samples was performed at 4 (room temperature), 8 (4°C), 24 (4°C), 48 (4° and −20°C), and 72 (−20°C) hours and at 7 days (−20°C). For each time point for each storage temperature, bias was calculated by subtracting values from the value obtained at 1 hour. Bias was modeled by use of a linear mixed model.

RESULTS Storage temperature had a significant effect on several plasma biochemical analytes. In general, aspartate aminotransferase activity and uric acid, total protein, and potassium concentrations increased after storage at 4° and −20°C. Differences in values after storage were mostly within the acceptable range for allowable total error, except for calcium and potassium concentrations for samples stored at −20°C. Both storage temperatures increased variability of measurement results. Results for samples stored at room temperature for 4 hours did not differ significantly from values at 1 hour. Results differed significantly between refrigerated and frozen samples stored for 48 hours.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Short-term storage conditions influenced results for some biochemical analytes. These effects should be considered when performing biochemical analyses of plasma samples obtained from red-eared sliders.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin following single-dose SC administration to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

ANIMALS 8 captive healthy 6-month-old sexually intact male black-tailed prairie dogs.

PROCEDURES Enrofloxacin (20 mg/kg) was administered SC once to 6 prairie dogs and IV once to 2 prairie dogs. A blood sample was collected from each animal immediately before (0 hours) and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Plasma enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations were quantified with ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

RESULTS Enrofloxacin was biotransformed to ciprofloxacin in the prairie dogs used in the study. For total fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin), the mean (range) of peak plasma concentration, time to maximum plasma concentration, and terminal half-life after SC administration were 4.90 μg/mL (3.44 to 6.08 μg/mL), 1.59 hours (0.5 to 2.00 hours), and 4.63 hours (4.02 to 5.20 hours), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that administration of enrofloxacin (20 mg/kg, SC, q 24 h) in black-tailed prairie dogs may be appropriate for treatment of infections with bacteria for which the minimum inhibitory concentration of enrofloxacin is ≤ 0.5 μg/mL. However, clinical studies are needed to determine efficacy of such enrofloxacin treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) and alfaxalone-butorphanol-midazolam (ABM) in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

ANIMALS

20 naked mole-rats.

PROCEDURES

Naked mole-rats received AKD (alfaxalone, 2 mg/kg; ketamine, 20 mg/kg; and dexmedetomidine, 0.02 mg/kg; n = 10) or ABM (alfaxalone, 2 mg/kg; butorphanol, 2 mg/kg; and midazolam, 1 mg/kg; 9) IM; 1 animal was removed from the study. Atipamezole (I mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg) were administered 40 minutes after anesthetic induction (defined as loss of the righting reflex) with AKD and ABM, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and reflexes were recorded every 5 minutes.

RESULTS

The ABM group had significantly longer median times for induction and recovery than the AKD group. Administration of ABM resulted in significantly lower respiratory rates than administration of AKD from time of anesthetic induction to 10 minutes after induction. Respiratory rate significantly decreased in the AKD group from I0 minutes after induction through the end of the anesthetic period but did not change over time in the ABM group. Males had higher respiratory rates in both groups. Loss of the righting reflex was still evident 40 minutes after induction in both groups. In the AKD group, all tested reflexes were absent from I0 to 40 minutes after induction; the ABM group had variable reflexes that recovered within individual animals over time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both AKD and ABM provided effective immobilization in naked mole-rats, but AKD appeared to provide more consistent and deeper anesthesia, compared with administration of ABM.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effects of a dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) anesthetic protocol versus isoflurane inhalation anesthesia on echocardiographic variables and plasma cardiac troponin 1 (cTnI) concentration in black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs; Cynomys ludovicianus).

ANIMALS

Nine 6-month-old sexually intact male captive BTPDs.

PROCEDURES

Each BTPD was randomly assigned to be anesthetized by IM administration of dexmedetomidine (0.25 mg/kg), ketamine (40 mg/kg), and midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) or via inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen. Three days later, each BTPD underwent the alternative anesthetic protocol. Echocardiographic data and a blood sample were collected within 5 minutes after initiation and just prior to cessation of each 45-minute-long anesthetic episode.

RESULTS

Time or anesthetic protocol had no significant effect on echocardiographic variables. For either protocol, plasma cTnI concentration did not differ with time. When administered as the first treatment, neither anesthetic protocol significantly affected plasma cTnI concentration. However, with regard to findings for the second treatments, plasma cTnI concentrations in isoflurane-treated BTPDs (n = 4; data for 1 animal were not analyzed because of procedural problems) were higher than values in DKM-treated BTPDs (4), which was suspected to be a carryover effect from prior DKM treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The DKM and isoflurane anesthetic protocols did not have any significant effect on echocardiographic measurements in the BTPDs. Increases in plasma cTnI concentration during the second anesthetic episode were evident when BTPDs underwent the DKM anesthetic protocol as the first of the 2 treatments, suggestive of potential myocardial injury associated with that anesthetic protocol. Clinicians should consider these findings, especially when evaluating BTPDs with known or suspected cardiac disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-midazolam (AKM) and alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

ANIMALS

9 male black-tailed prairie dogs.

PROCEDURES

Prairie dogs were anesthetized with AKM (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 1.5 mg/kg midazolam) and AKD (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 0.15 mg/kg dexmedetomidine) in a prospective, complete cross-over study. Atipamezole (1.5 mg/kg) after AKD or flumazenil (0.1mg/kg) after AKM was administered 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Onset of general anesthesia, physiologic parameters, depth of anesthesia, and time to recovery after reversal administration were evaluated for each treatment.

RESULTS

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs that varied in duration. The median induction times for AKM and AKD were 82 and 60 seconds, respectively. The median recovery times for AKM and AKD were 27 and 21 minutes, respectively. There were no significant differences between protocols for induction (P = .37) and recovery (P = .51) times. All measured reflexes were absent in all animals at 5 minutes postinduction, with hindlimb reflexes returning prior to forelimb reflexes. Heart rate was lower but respiratory rate was higher in the AKD treatment. Body temperature decreased significantly for both protocols (P < .001) and was significantly lower with AKM than AKD (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs. For both protocols, heat support and oxygen support are indicated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) and isoflurane inhalation (ISO) anesthetic protocols on selected ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; BTPDs).

ANIMALS

9 zoo-kept BTPDs.

PROCEDURES

The BTPDs received dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg, IM), ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg, IM) or inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen in a randomized complete crossover design (2-day interval between anesthetic episodes). Pupil size, globe position, tear production, and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded at 5, 30, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. For each BTPD, a phenol red thread test was performed in one randomly selected eye and a modified Schirmer tear test I was performed in the other eye. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometry.

RESULTS

Compared with findings for the DKM protocol, pupil size was smaller at all time points when the BTPDs underwent the ISO protocol. Globe position remained central during anesthesia with the DKM protocol, whereas it varied among central, ventromedial, and ventrolateral positions during anesthesia with the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure decreased significantly over time when the BTPDs underwent either protocol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research