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SUMMARY

A total of 5,142 kidney tissue samples and 5,111 serum samples from mature cattle in 49 states and Puerto Rico were collected at slaughter. Age of cattle ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 6.6 years). Leptospires were isolated from 88 (1.7%) kidney tissues, and 2,493 (49%) sera contained antibodies against 1 or more of 12 Leptospira interrogans serovars. Leptospires were observed by immunofluorescence in 41 (0.8%) kidney tissues. Using agglutinin-absorption tests, 73 (83%) isolates were identified as serovar hardjo, 11 (12.5%) as serovar pomona, and 4 (4.5%) as serovar grippotyphosa. By use of restriction endonuclease analysis studies of chromosomal dna, all isolates differed from reference serovars but were identical to strains previously isolated from cattle or swine in the United States. Of the serovar hardjo isolates, 85% were identical to restriction endonuclease analysis type (genotype) hardjo-bovis A and 11 (15%) were identical to genotype hardjo-bovis B. Serovar pomona isolates were identical to genotypes kennewicki A (64%) or kennewicki B (36%), and serovar grippotyphosa isolates were identical to the RM 52 strain. Isolation rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for beef cattle than for dairy cattle and were higher (P < 0.001) for bulls than for cows. Combined culture and immunofluorescence results indicated that 2% of mature cattle were renal carriers of leptospires.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

On the basis of serologic test results and isolation of leptospires from mature cattle, distribution and prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovars and genotypes were compared by state and region of the United States. Relationships between isolation rate and month of sample collection, mean regional temperature, and mean regional precipitation were examined. Isolation rate and seroprevalence were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for southeastern, south central, and Pacific coastal regions than for other regions of the United States. Isolates of genotypes hardjo-bovis A and kennewicki A and B, and of serovar grippotyphosa appeared to be randomly distributed. Genotype hardjo-bovis B isolates came from a southern area of the country that extends from Georgia to New Mexico. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first recorded isolation of serovar hardjo from Hawaii. Although significant relationship was not documented between isolation rate and month or season of the year, seroprevalence for summer, fall, and winter was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that for spring. Regional isolation rate was related more to mean temperature (r = 0.83; P < 0.05) than to mean precipitation amount (r = 0.34; P > 0.50).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To develop a reference database for characterization of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains by automated ribotyping and to use it to assess the discriminatory power of this typing procedure and the geographic distribution of Sta aureus and Str agalactiae strains in New York state dairy herds.

Sample Population

22 commercial dairy herds.

Procedure

Isolates of Sta aureus and Str agalactiae from bovine milk were identified by standard bacteriologic procedures, then typed by automated ribotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested in vitro. Two indicators made from the data were percentage of farms with multiple ribotypes and percentage of single ribotypes found in several geographic regions. Standard bacteriologic diagnosis, automated ribotyping, and determination of antibiograms (Kirby-Bauer method) also were done.

Results

Of 50 Sta aureus and 44 Str agalactiae isolates from composite milk samples of 12 and 10 herds, respectively, 18 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, were identified. The discriminatory power of automated ribotyping was approximately 0.96 (Hunter-Gaston's formula). A higher percentage of herds with Sta aureus had multiple ribotypes. The most common Sta aureus ribotypes tended to have broader geographic distribution. Some Sta aureus ribotypes were significantly associated with antibiotic resistance profiles.

Conclusions

Automated ribotyping appears to characterize bovine strains of bacteria associated with intramammary infections with a high discriminatory index. Potential applications include identification of strains that appear to have broad geographic distribution suggesting interfarm transfer, discrimination between recurrent versus new intramammary infections (ie, for control of Str agalactiae and Sta aureus), and evaluation of antibiotic therapy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:482–487)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research