Objective—To test the ability of a nested PCR assay to detect Eimeria macusaniensis at various stages of infection in alpacas.
Animals—4 healthy adult alpacas with no detectable E macusaniensis.
Procedures—Alpacas were inoculated with 2 × 104 sporulated oocysts. Serial fecal samples collected during the next 38 days were tested via sucrose flotation and PCR assay.
Results—Oocyst passage was detected via fecal flotation in all 4 alpacas 31 to 35 days after inoculation. Three had positive results for PCR assays on samples obtained 7 to 14 days after inoculation. One alpaca subsequently was removed from the study because of weight loss and inappetence. Two remaining alpacas had positive PCR reactions 28 and 31 days after inoculation, up to 7 days before oocysts appeared in the feces. All fecal samples with positive results for flotation also had positive results for PCR assay.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PCR assay was able to detect early (7 to 14 days) and late (28 to 31 days) prepatent infection. These positive results suggested that the assay could have been detecting DNA unassociated with oocysts or detecting shedding earlier than has been previously recognized. The gap between the early and late detection periods may not be evident in alpacas receiving a larger or continuous inoculum, as might occur with natural infection. Use of a PCR assay for analysis of fecal samples may be valuable for detection of E macusaniensis during the prepatent period, thus aiding in the identification and control of infected animals.
Objective—To compare numbers of L cells in intestinal samples and blood concentrations of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 between neonatal and mature alpacas.
Sample—Intestinal samples from carcasses of 4 suckling crias and 4 postweaning alpacas for immunohistochemical analysis and blood samples from 32 suckling crias and 19 healthy adult alpacas for an ELISA.
Procedures—Immunohistochemical staining was conducted in accordance with Oregon State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory standard procedures with a rabbit polyclonal anti–GLP-1 primary antibody. Stained cells with staining results in ileal tissue were counted in 20 fields by 2 investigators, and the mean value was calculated. For quantification of GLP-1 concentrations, blood samples were collected into tubes containing a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. Plasma samples were tested in duplicate with a commercial GLP-1 ELISA validated for use in alpacas.
Results—Counts of stained cells (mean ± SD, 50 ± 18 cells) and plasma GLP-1 concentrations (median, 0.086 ng/mL; interquartile range, 0.061 to 0.144 ng/mL) were higher for suckling alpacas than for postsuckling alpacas (stained cells, 26 ± 4 cells; plasma GLP-1 concentration, median, 0.034 ng/mL; interquartile range, 0.015 to 0.048 ng/mL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Older alpacas had lower numbers of L cells in intestinal tissues and lower blood concentrations of GLP-1 than those in neonates. These findings suggested that there may be a decrease in the contribution of GLP-1 to insulin production in adult alpacas, compared with the contribution in neonates.