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  • Author or Editor: Corinne Raphel Sweeney x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The endobronchial anatomy of 12 lung specimens from horses and 12 healthy, standing, sedated horses was evaluated, using a 200-cm-long, 9.5-mm-diameter videoendoscope. On the basis of these findings, the nomenclature system of Amis and McKiernan was modified for identification of airways of horses during bronchoscopy. Lobar bronchi are identified on the basis of the side of the bronchial tree on which they were found and the order in which they originated from the primary bronchus. Thus, RB1, RB2, and RB3 referred to right cranial lobar bronchus, respectively. On the left side, the designation of LB1 and LB2 refer to the left cranial lobar bronchus and the left caudal lobar bronchus, respectively. Segmental bronchi are identified by consecutive numbers in the order of origination from the lobar bronchus. The direction of the segmental bronchus was denoted by the capital letter D (dorsal), V (ventral), L (lateral), M (medial), R (rostral), and C (caudal). Subsegmental bronchi were identified in the order of origination from the segmental bronchi, using lower case letters (eg, RB2, 1V, a or RB2, 1V, aV). For subsequent branching of the subsegmental bronchi, the branches were numbered consecutively by their order of origination (eg, RB2, 1V, aV, 1D).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Tracheobronchial aspirates obtained from 66 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses in training at the same track were examined. Twenty-seven percent of the horses had > 20% neutrophils in the aspirate. Eosinophils, mast cells, giant cells, and Curschmann's spirals of mucus were observed in 94, 83, 65, and 42% of the horses, respectively. Hemosiderophages were observed in 86% of the horses, half of which had previous confirmation of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Although fungal elements were seen in 70% of the horses, bacteria were detected in only 3% of the horses. The authors conclude that inflammatory airway disease is widespread in the racing Thoroughbred population.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) fluid was analyzed in healthy horses, using different lavage fluid volumes and lung sites. The only significant difference in the cellular composition of bal fluid between the right and left lungs was the mast cell numbers, which were significantly higher in the left lung. Total cell count ranged from 34 to 330 cells/μl for the right lung and 43 to 330 cells/μl for the left lung. Percentage of neutrophils ranged from 1 to 7% in the right lung and 1 to 5% in the left lung. The small-volume (50 ml) lavage had a greater percentage of neutrophils and a lesser percentage of mast cells in the large-volume (350 ml) lavage. Statistical difference in the composition of bal fluid recovered was not detected between the 3 sequential 100-ml lavages and a single 300-ml lavage, except that macrophages were significantly higher in the 3 sequential 100-ml lavages. Values for bal fluid analysis in healthy horses have varied considerably and this variation is from a failure to adhere to any standard technique for volume of fluid infused.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Frequency of aerobic and anaerobic isolates in 327 aspirates and in 123 pleural fluid samples from 327 horses with pneumonia or pleuropneumonia and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the aerobes were reported. Of the 327 horses, 75% survived, 20% were euthanatized, and 5% died. Tracheobronchial aspirates or pleural fluid specimens from 25 of the horses did not yield growth. Of the remaining 302 horses, 221 had only aerobic organisms isolated, whereas only anaerobes were isolated from 6 of the 302 horses. The remaining 75 horses had mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections. The survival rates for horses with aerobic only isolates was twice that of horses with anaerobic isolates. The aerobic bacteria most frequently isolated were β-Streptococcus spp, Pasteurella spp, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp. The anaerobic species most frequently isolated were Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The effects of furosemide on the racing times of 79 horses without exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (eiph) and 52 horses with eiph were investigated. Racing times were adjusted to 1-mile equivalent racing times by 2 speed handicapping methods, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust actual racing times by winning time and distance for each race. All 3 methods of determining racing time indicated that geldings without eiph had significantly faster racing times (P < 0.05) when given furosemide before racing than when furosemide was not given before racing. Females and colts without eiph were determined to have faster racing times when furosemide was given before racing, but the difference was not significant. Geldings with eiph had significantly faster racing times (P = 0.0231) when given furosemide before racing, as determined by one of the speed handicapping methods. There was a strong correlation (range 0.9314 to 0.9751) between the 1-mile equivalent racing times, as determined by the 2 speed handicapping methods for horses with and without eiph. Furosemide failed to prevent the development of eiph in many horses that were previously considered to be eiph-negative. When given furosemide, 62 (25.3%) of 235 eiph-negative horses were eiph-positive after racing. Furosemide had questionable efficacy for prevention of eiph in known eiph-positive horses. Thirty-two (61.5%) of 52 eiph-positive horses given furosemide before a race remained eiph-positive after that race.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research