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  • Author or Editor: Connie J. Gebhart x
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OBJECTIVE To culture Lactobacillus spp from veterinary probiotics and measure their in vitro oxalate-degrading capacity.

SAMPLE 2 commercial veterinary probiotics containing Lactobacillus spp.

PROCEDURES Lactobacillus spp were cultured anaerobically on selective deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar medium and subcultured for speciation by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Isolates were inoculated into broth containing sodium oxalate (5 mg/L) and incubated anaerobically for 72 hours. An oxalate-degrading isolate of Lactobacillus acidophilus (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 53544) was the positive control sample; sterile broth containing a known quantity of sodium oxalate was the negative control sample. Oxalate concentrations were detected with ion chromatography. Oxalate degradation was assessed with Dunnett tests to detect differences in mean oxalate concentration for each isolate, compared with results for the negative control.

RESULTS Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus zeae (too closely related to differentiate) were isolated from probiotic 1, and L plantarum was isolated from probiotic 2. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene confirmed 100% homology to type species. Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 53544) and L acidophilus from probiotic 1 significantly decreased oxalate concentrations by 85.3 and 161.9 mg/L, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum from probiotics 1 and 2 significantly increased oxalate concentrations by 56.1 and 36.1 mg/L, respectively. Lactobacillus casei did not alter oxalate concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates significantly reduced oxalate concentrations. In vivo studies are needed to determine whether probiotics containing L acidophilus decrease urine oxalate concentrations and reduce risk of urolith recurrence in dogs with a history of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Embryonating eggs were inoculated with filtered porcine ileal mucosa containing intracellular curved rods (icr) and incubated for 4 to 6 days. Three of 12 pigs given the eggs per os developed microscopic lesions of proliferative enteritis (pe). Nonchallenge-exposed control pigs did not develop lesions of pe. Four of six positive control pigs given ileal mucosa from pigs with pe also developed microscopic lesions of pe. All of the PE lesions were found in pigs necropsied 10 to 29 days after challenge exposure. None of the swine in the study had clinical signs or gross lesions of pe.

Campylobacter spp were isolated from pigs with and without exposure to the ileal mucosa from pigs with pe. There was no relationship between Campylobacter spp isolation and development of lesions.

Deoxyribonucleic acids extracted from embryonating chicken eggs injected with the equivalent of 0.5 mg of mucosal lesions and incubated for 4 days hybridized to a dna probe specific for the icr, whereas dna extracted from 1.5 mg of mucosal homogenates of the same proliferative tissue did not hybridize with the same probe. Results of these experiments indicated that icr injected into eggs remained infective for pigs and suggest replication of icr in the first-passage eggs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research