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To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia induced and maintained with isoflurane (ISO) in cats.


8 healthy cats between 1 and 5 years old.


Anesthesia was induced with ISO in oxygen. Two anesthetic depths were maintained in each cat; mean alveolar concentrations (MAC) were 1.3 and 2.0 times MAC. Ventilation was either spontaneous or controlled. Each cat received each treatment combination according to a Latin square design. Cardiopulmonary measurements were made after 20 minutes of constant conditions with each combination of anesthetic depth and ventilatory mode.


Cardiac index was not different between ISO doses, but 2.0 MAC ISO reduced arterial blood pressure and total peripheral resistance. Cardiac index and systolic arterial blood pressure were reduced by controlled ventilation. The PaCO2 and pulmonary artery pressure were highest in association with 2.0 MAC ISO during spontaneous ventilation. Changes in pHa were attributable to changes in PaCO2 .


2.0 MAC ISO causes hypotension and hypercapnia; however, cardiac index is maintained. Hypercapnia may be abolished with controlled ventilation, but at the expense of reduced cardiac index. 1.3 MAC ISO results in minimal cardiopulmonary depression, especially when healthy cats are allowed to breathe spontaneously.

Clinical Relevance

Hypoventilation associated with untoward physiologic responses to 2.0 MAC may be overcome with controlled ventilation, but results in marked reduction in cardiovascular performance; thus, use of 2.0 MAC ISO should be avoided in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:182–185)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The uterine hemodynamic response to maternal positioning in dorsal recumbency was evaluated in 7 conscious pregnant cows during the third trimester. Anesthetic or sedative drugs were not administered. Uterine artery flow was measured, using a previously implanted ultrasonic flow probe. Catheters implanted in the uterine artery and vein were used for measurement of blood pressure and for blood sample collections. Heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, uterine arterial blood flow, arterial and venous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, and pH were measured in cows in standing position. Cows were cast with ropes and positioned in dorsal recumbency, then measurements were repeated at 15 and 30 minutes. Compared with standing measurements, dorsal recumbency caused 50% increase in heart rate and 44% increase in arterial blood pressure. Uterine artery flow did not change significantly. Despite increased ventilation, arterial oxygenation was reduced during dorsal recumbency. There were minimal differences between measurements at 15 and 30 minutes of dorsal recumbency.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research