Objective—To develop laparoscopic-assisted techniques
for enterostomy feeding tube placement and
full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum in dogs.
Animals—15 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. A trocar cannula
for the laparoscope was inserted on the ventral midline
caudal to the umbilicus. For enterostomy tube
placement, a second trocar cannula was placed lateral
to the right rectus abdominis muscle, and a
Babcock forceps was used to grasp the duodenum
and elevate it to the incision made for the cannula.
The duodenum was sutured to the abdominal wall,
and a feeding tube was inserted. For jejunal biopsy, a
third trocar cannula was placed lateral to the left rectus
abdominis muscle. A portion of jejunum was elevated
to the incision for the second or third cannula,
and a full-thickness biopsy specimen was obtained. A
second specimen was obtained from another portion
of jejunum, and retention sutures for the 2 biopsy
sites were tied so that serosal surfaces of the biopsy
sites were apposed to each other. Dogs were euthanatized
30 days after surgery.
Results—The enterostomy tube was properly positioned
and functional in all 8 dogs that underwent
laparoscopic-assisted enterostomy tube placement,
and sufficient samples for histologic examination
were obtained from all 7 dogs that underwent laparoscopic-assisted jejunal biopsy. None of the dogs had
any identifiable problems after surgery.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in dogs, laparoscopic-assisted procedures
for enterostomy tube placement and jejunal biopsy
are an acceptable alternative to procedures performed
during a laparotomy. (Am J Vet Res 2002;
Objective—To characterize urodynamic function and
anatomy before and after colposuspension in anesthetized
Animals—12 adult female Beagles.
Procedure—During general anesthesia (thiopental
sodium induction and halothane maintenance), urethral
pressure profiles, leak point pressure measurements
with a 50-ml bladder volume, positive contrast
cystograms, and retrograde vaginourethrocystograms
were performed. A caudal midline laparotomy was
used to perform colposuspension. Urodynamic and
radiographic studies were repeated after surgery.
Results—Leak point pressures were increased (120
to 168.9 cm H2O), and maximum urethral closure
pressures decreased (43.7 to 19.3 cm H2O ) after colposuspension.
The urethra and bladder were moved
cranially; the external urethral orifice was positioned
closer to the pelvic cavity, and the neck of the bladder
was positioned more cranially into the abdomen.
Length of the urethra, as measured by use of vaginourethrocystograms,
was increased by 3%. As measured
by use of urethral pressure profiles, total profile
length was increased by 19.9%, and functional profile
length was increased by 19.2%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased
leak-point pressure correlated with the expected clinical
improvement attributable to colposuspension.
Increased exposure of the urethra to abdominal and
pelvic cavity pressures may be the mechanism by
which incontinent dogs become continent after colposuspension.
Results of the leak-point pressure test
may correlate with clinical behavior before and after
colposuspension for treatment of incontinence. (Am J
Vet Res 2000;61:1353–1357)
Objective—To compare effects of medetomidine and
xylazine hydrochloride on results of cystometry and
micturition reflexes in healthy dogs and results of urethral
pressure profilometry (UPP) in sedated and conscious
Procedures—Urodynamic testing was performed 6
times in each dog (3 times after administration of
xylazine [1 mg/kg of body weight, IV] and 3 times
after administration of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM).
Before each episode of sedation, UPP was performed.
Heart and respiratory rates and indirect blood
pressures were recorded prior to and 5, 10, 20, and
30 minutes after injection of sedative. Cystometry
measurements included threshold volume, threshold
pressure, and tonus limb. The UPP measurements
included maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP),
functional profile length, and, in male dogs, plateau
Results—Mean MUCP was decreased markedly in
xylazine- and medetomidine-sedated dogs. Xylazine
and medetomidine also decreased plateau pressure
in male dogs. The MUCP measurements were consistent
among days for conscious and xylazine-sedated
dogs but were inconsistent for medetomidinesedated
female dogs. The proportion of valid cystometry
measurements was greater for xylazine (39 of
60) than for medetomidine (27 of 60). Cystometry
was considered invalid when bladder pressure
reached 30 cm H2O without initiation of a micturition
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomi
dine and xylazine have similar effects on measurement
of UPP and cystometry. Medetomidine was
less consistent among days for UPP in female dogs
and produced fewer valid cystometry tests, compared
with xylazine. For urodynamic evaluations,
medetomidine administered IM cannot be substituted
for xylazine administered IV. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To develop a model of low urethral pressure
incontinence and compare the relative contributions
of the pudendal and hypogastric nerves with
urethral function by performing selective neurectomy
and ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
Animals—19 healthy Foxhounds.
Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups. The
first group (10 dogs) underwent bilateral hypogastric
neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy and subsequent
bilateral pudendal neurectomy. The second group (9
dogs) underwent bilateral pudendal neurectomy and
subsequent hypogastric neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy.
Urethral pressure profilometry and leak
point pressure (LPP) tests were performed before
and after each neurectomy.
Results—Before surgery, mean ± SD LPP and maximal
urethral closure pressure (MUCP) in all dogs were
169.3 ± 24.9 cm H2O and 108.3 ± 19.3 cm H2O,
respectively; these values decreased to 92.3 ± 27 cm
H2O and 60.7 ± 20.0 cm H2O, respectively, after both
selective neurectomy surgeries. There was a progressive
decline of LPP after each neurectomy; however,
MUCP decreased only after pudendal neurectomy.
Fifteen dogs had mild clinical signs of urinary incontinence.
All dogs appeared to have normal bladder
function as indicated by posturing to void and consciously
voiding a full stream of urine. Urinary tract
infection did not develop in any dog.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypogastric
and pudendal neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy
caused a maximum decrease in LPP, whereas pudendal
neurectomy caused a maximum decrease in
Impact on Human Medicine—This model may be
useful for evaluation of treatments for improving urinary
control in postmenopausal women. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:695–699)
Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic
gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach
position and strength of the adhesion between the
stomach and abdominal wall.
Animals—8 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the
abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A
laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted
on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus.
Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted
lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus
muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a
longitudinal incision was made through the serosa
and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the
seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured
to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery,
positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate
stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying,
and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach
wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1
month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion
Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of
gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and
the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal
wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of
the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic
gastropexy technique described in the present
study could be performed quickly and easily by an
experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous
adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall,
and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)
Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique
for cystopexy in dogs.
Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female
dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of
the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male
dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured
to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the
serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised
and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and
internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored
daily for 30 days after surgery.
Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and
voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic
(leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry)
and contrast radiographic studies performed
30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained
before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned
dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently
euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed
at the same time as the cystopexy.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy
to perform, and not associated with urinary tract
infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res