A 3-year-old 31.1-kg castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 1- to 2-week history of paraparesis, knuckling of the hind feet, and difficulty posturing to urinate or defecate.
The dog was paraparetic but weakly ambulatory with a kyphotic posture, a mildly decreased patellar reflex in the right pelvic limb, increased tone in both pelvic limbs, and marked hyperesthesia on paraspinal palpation of the lumbar region. The urinary bladder was enlarged and firm on palpation. Neuroanatomic findings were primarily consistent with localization to the T3-L3 spinal cord segments. Magenetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spinal column revealed a discrete intramedullary spinal cord mass from the cranial aspect of L4 to the middle of L5. The mass was sampled by fine-needle aspiration, and on cytologic evaluation, the suspected diagnosis was an ependymoma.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Owing to poor prognosis and limited treatment options, the owner elected euthanasia. Postmortem examination of the spinal cord and histologic findings for samples of the mass supported a likely diagnosis of ependymoma.
Ependymoma is a rare neoplasm in dogs but should be considered in young patients with evidence of a tumor in the CNS. Fine-needle aspiration of the spinal cord mass was possible in the dog of this report, and the cytologic findings provided useful diagnostic information.
Objective—To determine the incidence of adverse events within 24 hours after contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in dogs and cats and compare the risk of death within 24 hours after imaging for animals that underwent ultrasonography with and without injection of a contrast agent.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—750 animals (411 case dogs, 238 control dogs, 77 case cats, and 24 control cats).
Procedures—At 11 institutions, medical records were reviewed of dogs and cats that had CEUS performed (cases) as were medical records of dogs and cats with clinical signs similar to those of case animals that had ultrasonography performed without injection of a contrast agent (controls). Information regarding signalment; preexisting disease; type, dose, and administration route of contrast agent used; immediate (within 1 hour after CEUS) and delayed (> 1 and ≤ 24 hours after CEUS) adverse events; and occurrence and cause of death (when available) was extracted from each medical record. Risk of death within 24 hours after ultrasonography was compared between case and control animals.
Results—Of the 411 case dogs, 3 had immediate adverse events (vomiting or syncope) and 1 had a delayed adverse event (vomiting). No adverse events were recorded for case cats. Twenty-three of 357 (6.4%) clinically ill case animals and 14 of 262 (5.3%) clinically ill control animals died within 24 hours after ultrasonography; risk of death did not differ between cases and controls.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that CEUS was safe in dogs and cats.