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Objective—To determine the prevalence of circumcaval ureters and other caudal vena cava variations in cats and determine whether circumcaval ureters were associated with macroscopic evidence of ureteral obstruction.

Sample—301 domestic cat cadavers obtained from an animal shelter.

Procedures—All cat cadavers were examined, and anatomic variations of the ureters and caudal vena cava were recorded. In cadavers with a circumcaval ureter, kidney length, width, and height were measured, and the ureters were examined macroscopically to determine whether there was gross evidence of ureteral obstruction in cats with circumcaval ureters.

Results—At least 1 circumcaval ureter was present in 106 of the 301 (35.2%) cats, with a right circumcaval ureter identified in 92 (30.6%) cats, a left circumcaval ureter identified in 4 (1.3%), and bilateral circumcaval ureters identified in 10 (3.3%). Twenty-one (7.0%) cats had a double caudal vena cava, including 2 cats in which the double caudal vena cava was the only anatomic abnormality identified. No sex predilection for anatomic abnormalities was found. Mean right kidney length was significantly greater than mean left kidney length in cats with a right circumcaval ureter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Circumcaval ureter was present in approximately a third of cats in this study. Variation in the development of the caudal vena cava is the proposed cause. The clinical relevance of this variation is unknown.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of arthrotomy alone or in combination with osteotomy of the proximal portion of the tibia on blood delivery to the patellar tendon of dogs.

SAMPLE 24 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES One hind limb from each cadaver was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: medial arthrotomy (MA; MA group), lateral arthrotomy (LA; LA group), MA and LA with tibial tuberosity transposition (MALA group), and MA with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO; TPLO group). The contralateral hind limb served as the control sample. Contrast solution (barium [33%], India ink [17%], and saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [50%]) was injected through an 8F catheter inserted in the caudal portion of the abdominal aorta. Limbs were radiographed to allow examination of vascular filling. The patella, patellar tendon, and tibial crest were harvested, radiographed to allow examination of tissue vascular filling, and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Vessels perfused with contrast solution were counted in sections obtained from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of each patellar tendon.

RESULTS Vessel counts did not differ significantly among the 3 tendon regions. Compared with results for the control group, delivery of contrast solution to the patellar tendon was significantly decreased in the MALA and TPLO groups but was not changed in the MA or LA groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that surgical procedures used to treat cranial cruciate injuries (ie, TPLO) and patellar luxation decreased blood delivery to the patellar tendon of canine cadavers, at least acutely.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the degree of and variability in the level of client compliance and identify determinants of client compliance with short-term administration of antimicrobial medications to dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—90 owners of dogs prescribed antimicrobials.

Procedure—Eligible clients were invited to participate when antimicrobial medications were dispensed. Data were collected during a follow-up appointment by use of a client questionnaire, residual pill count, and return of an electronic medication monitoring device. Attending veterinarians also completed a questionnaire that asked them to predict client compliance. Methods of assessing compliance were compared with nonparametric tests. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate potential determinants of compliance.

Results—Median compliance rates of 97% of prescribed container openings, 91% of days when the correct number of doses were given, and 64% of doses given on time as assessed by the electronic medication monitoring devices were significantly lower than the median compliance rates of 100% for client self-report of missing doses and pill count. Veterinarians were unable to predict client compliance. The dosage regimen significantly determined compliance. Clients giving antimicrobials once or twice daily were 9 times more likely to be 100% compliant, compared with 3 times daily dosing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of reported missed doses and pill counts was a significant predictor of compliance as measured by electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring caps provided useful information only when they were used appropriately. Asking clients about missed doses and performing pill counts are the most practical assessments of compliance in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:567–574)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To measure changes in rectal temperature and hematologic, biochemical, blood gas, and acid-base values before and after exercise.


14 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.


Dogs exercised continuously for 10 minutes by repeatedly retrieving a dummy thrown approximately 40 to 50 yards on land. The ambient temperature during each exercise period was recorded. Rectal temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate were measured; CBC and serum biochemical profile were determined; and arterial blood gas tensions, acid-base status, and plasma lactate and pyruvate concentrations were measured at rest and immediately after exercise. Rectal temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, and lactate and pyruvate concentrations were evaluated at intervals up to 120 minutes after exercise.


Immediately after exercise, rectal temperature increased markedly; ambient temperature did not affect rectal temperature. Arterial blood pH and Pao2 were significantly increased after exercise, and Paco2 and bicarbonate concentration were significantly decreased after exercise. Also, statistically, but not clinically, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, and segmented neutrophil counts; hemoglobin, total protein, and serum sodium and potassium concentrations; PCV; anion gap; and creatine kinase activity. Plasma lactate and pyruvate concentrations increased significantly after exercise, but there was no change in the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Reference values for healthy Laborador Retrievers during a standardized exercise protocol were established to compare data obtained from Laborador Retrievers with exercise intolerance and collapse. Important characteristics of lactate and pyruvate metabolism were documented that will enable more precise evaluation of exercise intolerance in this breed. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:88–92)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine tracheal mucociliary clearance rate (TMCCR) by use of a standard protocol in healthy anesthetized cats and to determine the effect of theophylline on TMCCR in healthy anesthetized cats.

Animals—6 healthy cats.

Procedure—Cats were anesthetized with propofol, and a droplet of the radiopharmaceutical technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin was placed endoscopically at the carina. Dynamic acquisition scintigraphic imaging was performed, using the larynx as the end point. The TMCCR was determined by measuring the distance the droplet traveled by frame rate. Each cat was imaged 6 times as follows: 3 times following placebo administration and 3 times following the administration of sustained release theophylline (25 mg/kg, PO). Serum theophylline concentrations were assessed during imaging to ensure therapeutic concentrations.

Results—The TMCCR in healthy adult cats anesthetized with propofol was 22.2 ± 2.8 mm/min. Tracheal mucociliary clearance rate in cats receiving theophylline was 21.8 ± 3.5 mm/min. Theophylline administration did not significantly alter TMCCR.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Theophylline has been shown to increase TMCCR in humans and dogs. In our study, we determined TMCCR in healthy anesthetized cats and found that it was not accelerated by the administration of theophylline. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1320–1322)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research