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  • Author or Editor: Christopher A. Hunter x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of cyclosporine, dexamethasone, and the immunosuppressive agent human CTLA4-Ig on cytokine production by feline lymphocytes in vitro and to assess patterns of cytokine production for 5 immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient cats.

Animals—21 clinically normal cats and 5 immunosupressed renal transplant recipient cats.

Procedures—Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from clinically normal cats and stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A; 10 μg/mL) alone or Con A with cyclosporine (0.05 μg/mL), dexamethasone (1 × 10−7M), a combination of cyclosporine-dexamethasone, or human CTLA4-Ig (10 g/mL). Cells from transplant recipients were stimulated with Con A alone. An ELISA was performed to measure production of interferon (IFN)-γ, granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-10. Proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+T cells from immunosuppressed cats were also evaluated. Pairwise comparisons were performed via a Wilcoxon signed rank test or Wilcoxon rank sum test.

Results—Cyclosporine, dexamethasone, cyclosporine-dexamethasone combination, and CTLA4-Ig caused a significant decrease in IL-2, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF production. Cyclosporine and cyclosporine-dexamethasone, but not human CTLA4-Ig, caused a significant decrease in IL-10 production. High basal concentrations of IL-2 and IL-10 were identified in transplant recipients, and IL-10 was significantly increased in stimulated cultures. In immunosuppressed cats, there was a decrease in frequency of responders and proliferative capacity of CD4+ and CD8+T cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CTLA4-Ig successfully inhibited proinflammatory cytokines while sparing cytokines critical for allograft tolerance. These data may be useful for developing better strategies to prevent rejection while sparing other immune functions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether human CTLA4-Ig ([hu]CTLA4-Ig) inhibits costimulation-dependent lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, compare the effects of (hu)CTLA4-Ig with cyclosporine and steroids on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphocyte proliferation, and determine whether memory T-cell function remains intact in the presence of (hu)CTLA4-Ig.

Animals—29 cats.

Procedure—Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with concanavalin A (costimulation- dependent mitogen) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (costimulation independent mitogens) alone or in the presence of (hu)CTLA4-Ig, cyclosporine, or dexamethasone; effects of these treatments on lymphocyte proliferation were assessed by incorporation of thymidine labeled with tritium or flow cytometry. Antigen-specific proliferation was determined by stimulating PBMCs from 2 healthy cats seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii with soluble Toxoplasma antigen alone or in the presence of (hu)CTLA4-Ig or cyclosporine.

Results—(hu)CTLA4-Ig inhibited costimulationdependent lymphocyte proliferation in vitro but had no effect on costimulation-independent lymphocyte proliferation. Compared with mitogen alone, (hu)CTLA4-Ig caused a significant decrease in responder frequency and proliferative capacity of CD4+ T cells; however, the effect on CD8+ T cells was not significant. Cyclosporine alone or with dexamethasone had a significantly greater suppressive effect on responder frequency and proliferative capacity of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, compared with (hu)CTLA4-Ig. Compared with cyclosporine, (hu)CTLA4-Ig appeared to have a sparing effect on antigen-specific proliferation of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—(hu)CTLA4-Ig selectively inhibited costimulation-dependent proliferation of lymphocytes in vitro and had a sparing effect on antigen-specific proliferation of memory cells. The specificity of its mechanism of action suggests that (hu)CTLA4-Ig may prevent allograft rejection but leave memory responses to previously encountered antigens intact. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:483–492)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research