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  • Author or Editor: Christine L. Cain x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical and histopathologic features of furunculosis in dogs following water immersion or exposure to grooming products.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—22 dogs with skin lesions consistent with furunculosis and a history of water immersion or grooming prior to onset.

Procedures—Information collected from the medical records of affected dogs included signalment, clinical signs, bathing or grooming procedure, diagnostic tests, treatment, and outcome.

Results—German Shepherd Dogs (4/22 [18%]) and Labrador Retrievers (4/22 [18%]) were most commonly affected. Skin lesions, particularly hemorrhagic pustules and crusts, were dorsally located in all dogs and occurred a median of 2 days (range, 1 to 7 days) following water immersion or exposure to grooming products. Twenty (91%) dogs were bathed at home or at a commercial grooming facility prior to lesion onset; 1 dog developed skin lesions following hydrotherapy on an underwater treadmill, and 1 dog developed peri-incisional skin lesions after surgery. Lethargy, signs of neck or back pain, and fever were common clinical signs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacterial isolate from dogs with bacteriologic culture performed on skin samples (10/14). The main histologic feature was acute follicular rupture in the superficial dermis with suppurative inflammation and dermal hemorrhage. Systemic antimicrobial treatment, particularly oral administration of fluoroquinolones, resulted in excellent clinical response in 16 of 22 (73%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute-onset furunculosis with characteristic clinical and histopathologic features in dogs following water immersion or exposure to grooming products was described. Knowledge of the historical and clinical features of this syndrome is essential for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical and histologic features of acute erythroderma in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 18 dogs with erythroderma and gastrointestinal disease.

PROCEDURES Medical records and biopsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from medical records included signalment, clinical signs, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. The Naranjo algorithm was used to estimate the probability of an adverse drug reaction for each dog.

RESULTS All dogs had an acute onset of erythematous macules or generalized erythroderma. Histologic features of skin biopsy specimens had 3 patterns representing a progressive spectrum of inflammation. Most dogs had vomiting (n = 17) and hematochezia (10). Signs of gastrointestinal disease became evident before, after, or concurrent with the onset of skin lesions in 10, 3, and 5 dogs, respectively. Inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, and adverse food reaction were diagnosed in 5, 3, and 3 dogs, respectively. The cause of the gastrointestinal signs was not identified for 8 dogs. Eight dogs had a Naranjo score consistent with a possible adverse drug reaction. Treatment of skin lesions included drug withdrawal (n = 15), antihistamines (16), and corticosteroids (14). Signs of gastrointestinal disease and skin lesions resolved at a mean of 4.6 days and 20.8 days, respectively, after onset.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated acute erythroderma may be associated with > 1 gastrointestinal disease or an adverse drug reaction in some dogs. Recognition of the clinical and histologic features of this syndrome is essential for accurate diagnosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the degree of biological similarity (on the basis of genotype determined via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]) between isolates of 2 Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies (S schleiferi subsp coagulans and S schleiferi subsp schleiferi) in clinical samples obtained from dogs.

Sample Population—161 S schleiferi isolates from 160 canine patients.

Procedures—A commercial microbiology identification system was used to identify each isolate as S schleiferi. Isolates underwent slide and tube coagulase testing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A mecA PCR assay and a latex agglutination test for penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) were also performed on each isolate. Clonal clusters with a similarity cutoff value of 80% were identified via PFGE.

Results—Of the 161 isolates, 61 (38%), 79 (49%), and 21 (13%) were obtained from cutaneous sites, ears, and other sites, respectively; 110 (68%) were coagulase negative, and 51 (32%) were coagulase positive. Among the coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive isolates, 65% (71/110) and 39% (20/51) were oxacillin resistant, respectively. All oxacillin-resistant isolates yielded positive results via mecA PCR assay and PBP2a latex agglutination testing. Via PFGE, 15 major clusters and 108 individual pulsed-field profiles were identified. Oxacillin-resistant and oxacillin-susceptible isolates clustered separately. Clonal clusters were heterogeneous and contained representatives of both subspecies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative isolates were not genotypically distinct and may represent a single S schleiferi sp with variable coagulase production, rather than 2 biologically distinct subspecies. Further studies are needed to characterize clinical or epidemiological differences associated with infections with coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative S schleiferi in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To define clinical differences between coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus schleiferi infections in dogs and to identify risk factors for the isolation of oxacillin-resistant S schleiferi.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—225 dogs (yielding 225 S schleiferi isolates).

Procedures—Information obtained from affected dogs' medical records included isolate body site source, antimicrobial treatments, and primary disease. For each dog, the S schleiferi isolate was characterized and antimicrobial susceptibility data were recorded. Risk factors for infection based on coagulase status and for S schleiferi oxacillin resistance were investigated.

Results—Allergic dermatitis was the most common underlying disease (111/225 dogs). Ears (102 [45%]) and skin (95 [42%]) were sources of most of the 225 isolates. Isolate coagulase status was not significantly associated with any patient-level factors. Of the 225 isolates, 129 (57%) were oxacillin resistant. Coagulase-negative isolates were more likely to be oxacillin resistant than were coagulase-positive isolates (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.0). Administration of penicillin-based or first-generation cephalosporin drugs (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.9) and third-generation cephalosporins (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 12.3) within 30 days prior to culture were risk factors for oxacillin resistance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive S schleiferi are potential pathogens in dogs and are often oxacillin resistant. Recent patient treatments with penicillin or cephalosporin were risk factors for oxacillin resistance. In clinical cases, full speciation of all Staphylococcus isolates should be performed and microbial treatments should be selected on the basis of results of susceptibility testing.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association