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Abstract

Objective—To determine the in vitro effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF, and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin, ketoprofen, and nabumetone on the contractile strength of the circular smooth muscle layer of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas.

Sample Population—Specimens of the third compartment obtained from 5 healthy adult llamas.

Procedure—Full-thickness tissue samples were collected from the third compartment immediately after euthanasia. Specimens were cut into strips oriented along the circular muscle layer and mounted in a tissue bath system. Incremental amounts of ketoprofen, nabumetone, indomethacin, PGE2, and PGF were added, and contractile strength (amplitude of contractions) was recorded.

Results—Generally, PGE2 reduced contractile strength of the circular smooth layer of the third compartment, whereas PGF increased the strength of contractions. The activity of the NSAIDs was generally excitatory in a concentration-dependent manner, although significant changes were induced only by administration of indomethacin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On isolated smooth muscle strips of the third compartment of llamas, exogenous PGE2 and PGF had a variable effect on contractile strength. Administration of the NSAIDs did not inhibit contractility and would not be likely to induce stasis of the third compartment in the absence of an underlying disease process. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:220–224

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of abdominal computed radiography (CR) for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in horses and to examine how these parameters are affected by the number and anatomic location of enteroliths and by gas distension of the gastrointestinal tract.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—Horses ≥ 1 year old that underwent abdominal CR and subsequent exploratory laparotomy or postmortem examination.

Procedures—3 reviewers blinded to signalment, history, clinical signs, and diagnoses separately evaluated abdominal computed radiographs of horses included in the study. Each set of radiographs was evaluated for the presence or absence of enteroliths, the amount of gas distention, and the image quality. Signalment, definitive diagnosis on the basis of findings on exploratory laparotomy or postmortem examination, and the number and location of enteroliths were obtained from medical records.

Results—Of the 142 cases reviewed, 58.4% (83/142) had confirmed enterolithiasis. For the 3 reviewers, overall sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 93%. Sensitivity was lower for small colon enteroliths than for large colon enteroliths (50% and 94.5%, respectively) and was significantly affected by gas distention. Sensitivity was not significantly affected by the number of enteroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Computed radiography provided high sensitivity and high specificity for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in horses. Caution should be exercised when the radiographic results are negative, as the sensitivity for small colon enterolithiasis was relatively low and gas distension negatively affected detection of enteroliths. Abdominal CR is indicated as a diagnostic test in horses examined for colic in geographic regions in which enterolithiasis is endemic.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of direct digital abdominal radiography for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in equids and to assess the effect of the number and anatomic location of enteroliths and gas distention of the gastrointestinal tract on diagnostic sensitivity of the technique.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—238 horses and ponies ≥ 1 year old that underwent digital abdominal radiography with subsequent exploratory celiotomy or postmortem examination.

Procedures—For each case, 3 reviewers independently evaluated radiographic views. Radiographic images were evaluated for presence or absence and location of enteroliths and the degree of gas distention. Signalment, definitive diagnosis based on exploratory celiotomy or postmortem examination findings, and number and anatomic location of enteroliths were obtained from the medical records.

Results—70 of the 238 (29.4%) equids had confirmed enterolithiasis. With regard to diagnosis of enterolithiasis via digital radiography, overall sensitivity and specificity for the 3 reviewers were 84% and 96%, respectively. Sensitivity was lower for small colon enteroliths (61.5%) than for large colon enteroliths (88.9%) and was negatively affected by gas distention of the gastrointestinal tract. Sensitivity was not affected by the number of enteroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sensitivity and specificity of digital radiography for the diagnosis of large colon enterolithiasis in equids was high. Sensitivity of digital radiography for detection of small colon enteroliths was lower than that for large colon enteroliths, but was higher than that typically associated with computed radiography. In geographic regions in which enterolithiasis in equids is endemic, digital abdominal radiography could be used as a diagnostic test for equids with colic.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To identify breed, age, sex, physical findings, history, and outcome of treatment in horses and other equids with enterolithiasis.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

900 equids with enterolithiasis.

Procedure

Medical records from equids with enterolithiasis admitted between 1973 and 1996 were reviewed. Data on signalment, history, physical examination and clinicopathologic findings, surgical findings, and outcome were compiled from records and from telephone interviews with owners. Sex and breed predilections were determined by comparison of the study population with the general hospital population of equids during the same time period.

Results

Equids with enterolithiasis represented 15.1% of patients admitted for treatment of colic, and 27.5% of patients undergoing celiotomy for treatment of colic. Arabian and Arabian crosses, Morgans, American Saddlebreds, and donkeys were significantly overrepresented, and Thoroughbreds, Standardbreds, warmbloods, and stallions were significantly underrepresented in the study population, compared with the hospital population. The mean age of equids with enterolithiasis was 11.4 years. The most common historic findings were signs of intermittent colic (33.3%) and passage of enteroliths in the feces (13.5%). Physical examination findings were similar to those found in equids with other forms of nonstrangulating large colon obstructive disease. Fifteen percent (131) developed gastrointestinal tract rupture caused by an enterolith that necessitated euthanasia. Short-term and 1-year survival rates for equids undergoing celiotomy for treatment of enterolithiasis and recovering from anesthesia were excellent (96.2 and 92.5%, respectively), and postoperative complications were uncommon. Recurrence of enterolithiasis was identified in 7.7% of the study population.

Clinical Implications

Results indicated that short-term and 1-year survival rates for equids undergoing surgery for enterolithiasis are excellent. Identification of signalment, history, and management factors may help identify equids with a high risk for development of enterolithiasis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214;233–237)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the relation between several racing speed history characteristics and risk of fatal skeletal injury (FSI) in racing Thoroughbreds.

Animals

64 Thoroughbreds euthanatized during a 9-month period in 1991 at a California racemeet because of a catastrophic fracture incurred while racing (cases), identified retrospectively. For each race in which an FSI occurred, 1 control horse was randomly selected from the noncatastrophically injured participants.

Procedure

Racing and officially timed workout histories were obtained for each horse. Several history characteristics were calculated to summarize racing career patterns and high-speed exercise schedules prior to date of injury and included age at first race, proportion of career spent laid up, average duration of laid up periods, average lifetime racing frequency, time from last lay up to date of injury, and total and rate of distance accumulated 1 to 6 months prior to date of injury. History characteristics associated with FSI were screened by paired t-test and studied in detail using conditional logistic regression.

Results

High total and high average daily rates of exercise distance accumulation within a 2-month period were associated with higher risks for FSI during racing, yet career patterns, such as age at first race or total proportion of career spent laid up, were not found to be associated with risk for FSI. A horse that had accumulated a total of 35 furlongs of race and timed-work distance in 2 months, compared with a horse with 25 furlongs accumulated, had an estimated 3.9-fold increase in risk for racing-related FSI (95% confidence interval = 2.1, 7.1). A horse that had accumulated race and timed-work furlongs at an average rate of 0.6 furlong/d within a 2-month period, compared with a horse with an average of 0.5 furlong/d, had an estimated 1.8-fold increase in risk for racing-related FSI (95% confidence interval = 1.4, 2.6).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Thoroughbred racehorses that either accumulate large total highspeed distances or rapidly accumulate high-speed distances within a 2-month period may be at increased risk for FSI during racing. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1549–1555)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare the strength of the sutured linea alba, in vitro, using 2 suture patterns.

Animals

12 clinically normal llamas.

Procedure

2 incisions in the linea alba of 12 llamas were closed with a simple continuous or inverted cruciate pattern, and tissue was harvested after 10 days. In 6 llamas, the simple continuous line was intact; the inverted cruciate specimens contained 6 sutures. In 6 llamas, 1 knot was excised in the simple continuous pattern to simulate a failed line; the cruciate pattern contained 5 knots. Tissue sections were taken from cranial, between, and caudal to the linea alba incisions to compare fascial thickness. The sutured specimens were mounted in a mechanical testing system and tested to failure. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of suture pattern and incisional position on mechanical properties.

Results

Significant differences were not found between suture patterns or between location for yield force, failure force, or yield strain, whereas failure strain was lower for the intact simple continuous pattern than the inverted cruciate pattern (P = 0.003). From histomorphometric analysis, the caudal tissue specimens were significantly thinner than the middle tissue specimen cranial to the umbilicus (P = 0.006).

Conclusion

There was no significant difference in monotonic breaking strength of the linea alba sutured with the simple continuous or inverted cruciate pattern.

Clinical Relevance

These results justify the use of the simple continuous pattern over the cruciate pattern for ventral midline closure in llamas because of the ease of placement and speed. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:938–942)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities are altered during low flow ischemia and reperfusion of the small intestine of horses.

Animals

5 clinically normal horses without histories of abdominal problems.

Procedure

With the horse under general anesthesia, a laparotomy was performed and blood flow to a segment of the distal jejunum was reduced to 20% of baseline for 120 minutes and was then reperfused for 120 minutes. Biopsy specimens were obtained before, during, and after ischemia for determination of xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities, and for histologic and morphometric analyses.

Results

Percentage of xanthine oxidase activity (as a percentage of xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activity) was not altered during ischemia and reperfusion. An inflammatory response developed and progressed during ischemia and reperfusion. Mucosal lesions increased in severity after ischemia and reperfusion. Mucosal surface area and volume decreased during ischemia and continued to decrease during reperfusion. Submucosal volume increased slightly during ischemia, and continued to increase during reperfusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Evidence for conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase during ischemia was not found. Factors other than production of reactive oxygen metabolites may be responsible for progressive epithelial loss, decrease in mucosal surface area and volume, and increase in submucosal volume observed in this study. Other methods of determining xanthine oxidase activity that detect the enzyme in sloughed epithelial cells should be used to better define the importance of this pathway in jejunal reperfusion injury in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:772-776)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Sixteen horses were allotted at random to 3 groups: vehicle only; low dosage (vehicle and 3 mg of U-74389G/kg of body weight); high dosage (vehicle and 10 mg of U-74389G/kg). These solutions were given prior to reperfusion. The ascending colon was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Before, during, and after ischemia, full-thickness colonic tissue biopsy specimens were obtained for measurement of malondealdehyde (mda) concentration and myeloperoxidase activity and for morphologic evaluation.

Although increases were not significant, mda concentration and myeloperoxidase activity increased during ischemia and reperfusion. Administration of U-74389G did not have significant effects on mda concentration and myeloperoxidase activity. However, the lower dosage tended (P = 0.08) to reduce myeloperoxidase activity at 30 and 60 minutes of reperfusion.

In horses of the vehicle-only group, ischemia induced a decrease in mucosal surface area that was continued into the reperfusion period (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of U-74389G at both dosages (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented the reperfusion-induced reduction in mucosal surface area, which was significant at 60 minutes (high dosage; P = 0.05) and 90 minutes (low and high dosages; P = 0.02). After initial reduction in horses of all groups, mucosal volume increased for the initial 60 minutes of reperfusion.

Our results indicate that lipid peroxidation may be partially involved in continued cellular death after ischemia of the ascending colon of horses. The 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, prevented further loss of mucosa and partially attenuated the induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity during reperfusion of the ascending colon.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of the 21-amino-steroid, U-74389G, on reperfusion of the equine jejunum, using total (TVO) and partial (PVO) vascular occlusion during the ischemic period.

Design

TVO: 16 healthy horses were randomly allotted to 3 groups—4 horses received the vehicle alone, 6 horses received a low dosage (3 mg/kg of body weight), and 6 horses a high dosage (10 mg/kg) of U-74389G. PVO: 10 healthy horses were randomly allotted to 2 groups—5 horses received the vehicle alone, and 5 horses received the low dosage (3 mg/kg) of U-74389G.

Procedure

TVO was induced for 1 hour followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. During PVO, blood flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 2 hours, followed by 2 hours of reperfusion.

For both models, either the vehicle alone or the drug was given 15 minutes prior to reperfusion. Samples were obtained before, during, and after ischemia for determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondealdehyde (MDA) concentration, concentration of conjugated dienes (PVO experiment only), and morphometric analysis.

Results

TVO: tissue concentration of MDA and MPO activity were not altered in any group by ischemia or reperfusion. During ischemia, mucosal volume and surface area were reduced. After reperfusion, no further reduction occurred. After initial decrease in submucosal volume during ischemia, there was a significant increase after reperfusion in the vehicle-only group (P < 0.05). PVO: there were no alterations in the concentration of either MDA or conjugated dienes. There was a significant increase in the activity of MPO during ischemia and reperfusion (P< 0.05). These effects were similar for the vehicle-only and drug groups. During ischemia, there was a significant decrease in mucosal surface area and volume (P< 0.05), that was continued during reperfusion for the vehicle-only group (P< 0.05). Submucosal volume increased during reperfusion (P< 0.05). Serosal volume was increased during ischemia and reperfusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Reduced blood flow during ischemia (PVO group) caused continued loss in mucosal volume and surface area during reperfusion. At the dosage given, the 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, was not effective in preventing continued reduction in mucosal volume and surface area after restoration of blood supply in the horses subjected to reduced blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:762–770)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research