To evaluate the elastic modulus of various ligaments of the forelimbs of cadaveric horses.
408 ligaments from 37 forelimbs of 10 Thoroughbred cadavers and cadavers of 9 other horse breeds.
Collateral ligaments and straight and oblique sesamoid ligaments were harvested from the proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, carpal, and elbow joints of both forelimbs of all 19 horses. Ligament dimensions were measured, and the elastic modulus was determined by tensile testing the ligaments with a strain rate of 1 mm•s−1.
Elastic modulus of the ligaments differed significantly among joints. Highest mean ± SE elastic modulus was for the medial collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joints of Thoroughbreds (68.3 ± 11.0 MPa), and the lowest was for the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joints of other breeds (2.8 ± 0.3 MPa). Thoroughbreds had a significantly higher elastic modulus for the collateral ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, compared with values for the other breeds. There was large variation in elastic modulus. Elastic modulus was negatively affected by age. In the ligaments in the distal aspect of the forelimbs, elastic modulus was negatively affected by height at the highest point of the shoulders (ie, withers).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Cross-sectional area and elastic modulus of collateral ligaments in the forelimbs of equine cadavers differed between breeds and among joints, which may have been reflective of their relative physiologic function under loading during exercise.
Objective—To describe spontaneous locomotion activity of foals kept under various management conditions and assess the suitability of global positioning system (GPS) technology for recording foal activity.
Procedures—During the foals' first 4 months of life, 921 observation periods (15 minutes each) were collected and analyzed for locomotion activities. The GPS system was evaluated by simultaneously carrying out field observations with a handheld computer.
Results—Foals spent 0.5% of total observed time cantering, 0.2% trotting, 10.7% walking, 32.0% grazing, 34.8% standing, and 21.6% lying down. Total observed daytime workload (velocity × distance) in the first month was approximately twice that in the following months. Locomotion activity decreased with increasing age. Colts had more activity than fillies in certain periods, and foals that were stabled for some portion of the day had compensatory locomotion activity, which was probably insufficient to reach the level of foals kept continually outside. The GPS recordings and handheld-computer observations were strongly correlated for canter, trot, and walk and moderately correlated for standing and lying. Correlation for grazing was low.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that domestically managed foals, when kept 24 h/d at pasture, will exercise at a level comparable with feral foals. High workload during the first month of life might be important for conditioning the musculoskeletal system. The GPS technique accurately quantified canter, trot, and walk activities; less accurately indexed resting; and was unsuitable for grazing because of the wide array of velocities used while foraging.
Objective—To determine whether clinically effective concentrations of methylprednisolone or triamcinolone can be achieved in the navicular bursa after injection of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) or triamcinolone acetonide (TA) into the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) and whether clinically effective concentrations of these drugs can be achieved in the DIPJ after injecting the navicular bursa with the same doses of MPA or TA.
Animals—32 healthy horses.
Procedures—Horses in groups 1 through 4 received 40 mg of MPA in the DIPJ, 10 mg of TA in the DIPJ, 40 mg of MPA in the navicular bursa, and 10 mg of TA in the navicular bursa, respectively. Concentrations of corticosteroids that diffused into the adjacent synovial structure were determined.
Results—For group 1, injection of MPA into the DIPJ yielded a mean ± SD concentration of 0.24 ± 0.072 μg of methylprednisolone/mL in the navicular bursa. For group 2, injection of TA into the DIPJ yielded 0.124 ± 0.075 μg of triamcinolone/mL in the navicular bursa. For group 3, injection of MPA into the navicular bursa yielded 0.05 ± 0.012 μg of methylprednisolone/mL in the DIPJ. For group 4, injection of TA into the navicular bursa yielded 0.091 ± 0.026 μg of triamcinolone/mL in the DIPJ.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A clinically effective concentration of methylprednisolone or triamcinolone diffused between the DIPJ and navicular bursa after intra-articular or intrabursal injection, which would justify injection of the DIPJ with MPA or TA to ameliorate inflammation of the navicular bursa.
OBJECTIVE To compare regional proportions and spatial distributions of volumetric bone mineral density (BMDv) of the palmar aspect of the distal epiphysis of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) in limbs with or without a condylar fracture from Thoroughbred racehorses.
SAMPLE McIIIs from cadavers of Thoroughbred racehorses with (n = 6 bones) and without (8) a condylar fracture.
PROCEDURES BMDv and spatial distributions of BMDv in peripheral quantitative CT images of the distal epiphysis of McIIIs were quantitatively assessed with spatial analysis software. Relative proportions of voxels within 9 threshold categories of BMDv and spatial statistics for BMDv distribution were compared between fractured and nonfractured limbs.
RESULTS No significant differences in BMDv characteristics were identified between fractured and nonfractured limbs, although fractured limbs had a lower proportion of voxels in the BMDv thresholds 700 to < 800 mg/cm3 and 800 to < 900 mg/cm3 but a higher proportion of voxels in the BMDv threshold 1,000 to < 1,100 mg/cm3 for the central condylar region of the medial condyle. Results of spatial analysis reflected the response of bone to race training rather than differences between fractured and nonfractured limbs. In both limb groups, uniform clusters of low BMDv with areas of high BMDv were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE BMDv characteristics of the distal epiphysis of McIII reflected training load, and fracture characteristics were subtle. Serial imaging techniques in conjunction with detailed training data are required to elucidate the onset of the pathological response to load in horses.
The American Association of Veterinary Clinicians (AAVC) convened a Diversity, Equity, and Inclusivity working group in March 2021 to address the limited diversity (including but not limited to ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity) in clinical post-DVM graduate training programs and academic faculty. Concurrent with a working group formation, the AAVC developed a strategic plan. The central mission of the AAVC is to develop, support, and connect academic leaders to fuel the future of the veterinary medical profession. House officers and their training programs are central to all goals outlined in the strategic plan. Amongst other strategic goals, the working group identified best practices for intern and resident recruitment and selection. We report herein from the current health profession literature ways to identify and recruit talented, diverse candidates especially those with non-traditional (atypical) preparation and experience. We also provide recommendations on best practices for intern and resident selection. This document highlights holistic approaches, some of which are incrementally being incorporated into the Veterinary Intern Resident Matching Program application, that emphasize diversity as a selection criteria for intern and resident selection an important step towards building a more resilient and inclusive workforce. These include expanding candidate assessment beyond grades and class rank into a more standardized method for screening candidates that includes consideration of life experiences and talents outside of veterinary medicine.