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- Author or Editor: Chris H. A. van de Lest x
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Objective—To assess whether site-related changes in biochemical composition are present in the cartilage and subchondral and trabecular bone of the metacarpophalangeal joint of horses with early osteoarthritis.
Sample Population—Right metacarpophalangeal joints from 59 mature warmblood horses.
Procedure—Biochemical data (cross-link, amino acid, DNA, and ash contents; denatured collagen and glycosaminoglycan [GAG] concentrations; bone mineral density; and mineral composition) were obtained from 2 differently loaded sites of phalanx I cartilage and subchondral and trabecular bone samples; data were compared with previously published values from nonosteoarthritic equine joints.
Results—Compared with findings in nonosteoarthritic joints, GAG concentration was lower in cartilage from osteoarthritic joints and there was a loss of site differences in cellularity and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-link content. In subchondral bone, LP cross-link content was decreased overall and there was a loss of site differences in osteoarthritic joints; ash content was higher in the osteoarthritic joints. Hydroxyproline content in trabecular bone from osteoarthritic joints was greater than that in nonosteoarthritic trabecular bone. In all 3 layers and at both sites, the linear increase of the pentosidine cross-link content with age had diminished or was not apparent in the horses with osteoarthritic joints.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In equine metacarpophalangeal joints with early osteoarthritis, distinct biochemical changes were detected in the cartilage and subchondral and trabecular bone. The dissimilarity in response of the different tissues and differences between the sites that are affected may be related to differences in biomechanical loading and transmission and dissipation of force. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1238–1246)
Objective—To assess whether reported alterations in metabolism of cartilage matrix in young (0 to 24 months old) horses with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) may also be found in older (24 to 48 months old) horses with clinical signs of OCD and to investigate the role of eicosanoids in initiating these clinical signs.
Sample Population—Synovial fluid was collected from 38 tarsocrural joints of 24 warmblood horses with (22 joints of 16 horses) or without (16 joints of 8 horses) clinical signs and a radiographic diagnosis of OCD of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia.
Procedures—Turnover of type II collagen was investigated by use of specific immunoassays for synthesis (carboxypropeptide of type II collagen [CPII]) and degradation (collagenase-cleaved fragments of type II collagen [C2C]) products. Furthermore, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), leukotriene (LT) B4, cysteinyl LTs, and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations were determined, and concentrations in joints with OCD were compared with those in joints without OCD.
Results—Concentrations of CPII, C2C, and GAG did not differ significantly between affected and nonaffected joints. Fluid from joints with OCD had significantly higher LTB4 and PGE2 concentrations than did fluids from nonaffected joints.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Altered collagen or proteoglycan turnover was not detected in 24- to 48-month-old horses at the time they developed clinical signs of OCD of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia. However, increased concentrations of LTB4 and PGE2 in fluid of joints with OCD implicate these mediators in the initiation of clinical signs of OCD.
Objective—To determine effects of microcurrent electrical tissue stimulation (METS) on equine tenocytes cultured from the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT).
Sample Population—SDFTs were collected from 20 horses at slaughter.
Procedure—Tenocytes were isolated following outgrowth from explants and grown in 48-well plates. Four methods of delivering current to the tenocytes with a METS device were tested. Once the optimal method was selected, current consisting of 0 (negative control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mA was applied to cells (8 wells/current intensity) once daily for 8 minutes. Cells were treated for 1, 2, or 3 days. Cell proliferation, DNA content, protein content, and apoptosis rate were determined.
Results—Application of microcurrent of moderate intensity increased cell proliferation and DNA content, with greater increases with multiple versus single application. Application of microcurrent of moderate intensity once or twice increased protein content, but application 3 times decreased protein content. Application of current a single time did not significantly alter apoptosis rate; however, application twice or 3 times resulted in significant increases in apoptosis rate, and there were significant linear (second order) correlations between current intensity and apoptosis rate when current was applied twice or 3 times.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study indicate that microcurrent affects the behavior of equine tenocytes in culture, but that effects may be negative or positive depending on current intensity and number of applications. Therefore, results are far from conclusive with respect to the suitability of using METS to promote tendon healing in horses.
Objective—To determine the relationship between the output of an electrical treatment device and the effective field strength in the superficial digital flexor tendon of horses.
Sample Population—Cadaver horse forelimbs without visible defects (n = 8) and 1 live pony.
Procedure—Microcurrents were generated by a microcurrent electrical therapy device and applied in proximodistal, dorsopalmar, and mediolateral directions in the entire forelimbs, dissected tendons, and the pony with various output settings. Corresponding field strengths in the tendons were measured.
Results—A linear relationship was detected between current and field strength in all conditions and in all 3 directions. In dissected tendons, significant differences were detected among all 3 directions, with highest field strength in the proximodistal direction and lowest in the dorsopalmar direction. In the entire forelimbs, field strength in the proximodistal direction was significantly lower than in the mediolateral direction. Results in the pony were similar to those in the entire forelimbs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Electrode placement significantly affected field strength in the target tissue. Many surrounding structures caused considerable reduction of field strength in the target tissue. These factors should be taken into account when establishing protocols for electrical current–based therapeutic devices if these devices are proven clinically effective.
Objective—To evaluate quantitative ultrasonography for objective monitoring of the healing process and prognostication of repair quality in equine superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons.
Animals—6 horses with standardized surgical lesions in SDF tendons of both forelimbs.
Procedures—Healing was monitored for 20 weeks after surgery by use of computerized ultrasonography. Pixels were categorized as C (intact fasciculi), B (incomplete fasciculi), E (accumulations of cells and fibrils), or N (homogenous fluid or cells). Four scars with the best quality of repair (repair group) and 4 scars with the lowest quality (inferior repair group) were identified histologically. Ratios for C, B, E, and N in both groups were compared.
Results—During 4 weeks after surgery, lesions increased 2- to 4-fold in length and 10-fold in volume. Until week 3 or 4, structure-related C and B ratios decreased sharply, whereas E and N ratios increased. After week 4, C and B ratios increased with gradually decreasing E and N ratios. At week 12, C and B ratios were equivalent. After week 12, C ratio increased slowly, but B ratio more rapidly. At week 20, C ratio remained constant, B ratio was substantially increased, and E and N ratios decreased. Values for the inferior repair group were most aberrant from normal. Ratios for C differed significantly between repair and inferior repair groups at weeks 16 and 18 and for B beginning at 14 weeks.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Computerized ultrasonography provided an excellent tool for objective monitoring of healing tendons in horses and reliable prognostication of repair quality.