To assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) for the visualization of nondilated renal pelvises and ureters in dogs and to compare our findings for MRU versus CT urography (CTU).
9 healthy Beagles.
Dogs underwent CTU, static-fluid MRU, and excretory MRU, with ≥ 7 days between procedures. Contrast medium was administered IV during CTU and excretory MRU, whereas urine in the urinary tract was an intrinsic contrast medium for static-fluid MRU. For each procedure, furosemide (1 mg/kg, IV) was administered, and reconstructed dorsal plane images were acquired 3 minutes (n = 2) and 7 minutes (2) later. Images were scored for visualization of those structures and for image quality, diameters of renal pelvises and ureters were measured, and results were compared across imaging techniques.
Excretory MRU and CTU allowed good visualization of the renal pelvises and ureters, whereas static-fluid MRU provided lower visualization of the ureters. Distention of the renal pelvises and ureters was good in excretory MRU and CTU. Distention of the ureters in static-fluid MRU was insufficient compared with that in CTU and excretory MRU. Distinct artifacts were not observed in CTU and excretory MRU images. Static-fluid MRU images had several mild motion artifacts.
Our findings indicated that excretory MRU with furosemide administration was useful for visualizing nondilated renal pelvises and ureters of dogs in the present study. When performing MRU for the evaluation of dogs without urinary tract dilation, excretory MRU may be more suitable than static-fluid MRU.
To assess the feasibility of blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) MRI for measurement of the renal T2* relaxation rate (R2*; proxy for renal oxygenation) before and after furosemide administration and to evaluate the reliability and repeatability of those measurements in healthy dogs.
8 healthy adult Beagles (4 males and 4 females).
Each dog was anesthetized and underwent BOLD MRI before (baseline) and 3 minutes after administration of furosemide (1 mg/kg, IV) twice, with a 1-week interval between scanning sessions. Mapping software was used to process MRI images and measure R2* and the difference in R2* (∆R2*) before and after furosemide administration. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess measurement reliability, and the coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman method were used to assess measurement repeatability.
Mean ± SD baseline R2* in the renal medulla (24.5 ± 3.8 seconds−1) was significantly greater than that in the renal cortex (20.6 ± 2.7 seconds−1). Mean R2* in the renal cortex (18.6 ± 2.6 seconds−1) and medulla (17.8 ± 1.5 seconds−1) decreased significantly after furosemide administration. Mean ∆R2* in the medulla (6.7 ± 2.4 seconds−1) was significantly greater than that in the renal cortex (2.1 ± 0.7 seconds−1). All R2* and ∆R2* values had good or excellent reliability and repeatability, except the cortical ∆R2*, which had poor repeatability.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that BOLD MRI, when performed before and after furosemide administration, was noninvasive and highly reliable and repeatable for dynamic evaluation of renal oxygenation in healthy dogs.