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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered vaccine of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae that was prepared by spray drying or solvent evaporation.

Animals—Thirty 6-week-old, crossbred, specificpathogen- free (SPF) pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated into 5 groups and housed in an SPF facility. Pigs in 2 groups (groups AQ and CAP) were fed M hyopneumoniae enteric-coated vaccine on days 0, 10, and 20. A third group (group IM) received an IM injection of M hyopneumoniae vaccine with aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant on days 0, 10, and 20. The last 2 groups (nonvaccinated- challenged [NV-C] and nonchallenged [NC]) were fed a sham treatment. All 24 pigs in groups AQ, CAP, IM, and NV-C were challenge exposed with 5 ml of a 10% pneumonic lung suspension administered on day 40 via intubation of the trachea. All pigs were slaughtered and the lungs removed and examined for lesions on day 68.

Results—In vitro studies indicated that these 2 microencapsulation techniques formed an effective shell and protected mycoplasmal antigen from gastric acid. Results of inoculation and challenge tests indicated that microencapsulated M hyopneumoniae were sufficiently potent to induce an immune response and provide good protection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered microencapsulated M hyopneumoniae vaccines induced an immune response and reduced the severity of lung lesions in challengeexposed pigs. Results suggest that this novel method can be applied to other antigens, because the spray-drying process yielded an orally administered M hyopneumoniae vaccine that induced a good immune response. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:1118–1123)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA).

DESIGN Prospective case-control study.

ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses.

PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses. Echocardiography was performed in 14 HERDA-affected and 11 control horses. Biomechanical data and echocardiographic variables of interest were compared between groups by statistical analyses,

RESULTS Mean values for mean and maximum UTS of heart valves were significantly lower in HERDA-affected horses than in controls. Blood vessels were identified in aortic valve leaflets of HERDA-affected but not control horses. Most echocardiographic data did not differ between groups. When the statistical model for echocardiographic measures was controlled for body weight, mean and maximum height and width of the aorta at the valve annulus in short-axis images were significantly associated with HERDA status and were smaller for affected horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lower UTS of heart valves in HERDA-affected horses, compared with those of control horses, supported that tissues other than skin with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in horses with HERDA. Lack of significant differences in most echocardiographic variables between affected and control horses suggested that echocardiography may not be useful to detect a substantial loss of heart valve tensile strength. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. Studies in horses with HERDA may provide insight into cardiac abnormalities in people with collagen disorders.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association