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To assess the effect of aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide antacid and bismuth subsalicylate on gastric pH in clinically normal horses and to develop guidelines on the use of these agents for treatment of peptic ulcer disease in horses.


Prospective, randomized, controlled trial.


5 clinically normal adult horses with chronically implanted gastric cannulas.


Each horse received all 5 treatments (30 g of aluminum hydroxide/15 g of magnesium hydroxide, 12 g of aluminum hydroxide/6 g of magnesium hydroxide, 10.5 g of bismuth subsalicylate, 26.25 g of bismuth subsalicylate, and 5% methylcellulose control) with only 1 experiment performed each day. Gastric pH was measured via a glass electrode inserted through the gastric cannula for 1 hour before treatment and continued for 2 hours after treatment. Food or water was not given to the horses during the experiment. Measurements of gastric pH obtained during posttreatment hours were compared with pretreatment gastric pH values.


Only a dose of 30 g of aluminum hydroxide/ 15 g of magnesium hydroxide resulted in a significant increase in gastric pH over baseline or control values. Mean pH was 5.2 ± 0.62 and 4.59 ± 0.48 for posttreatment hours 1 and 2, respectively.

Clinical Implications

Oral administration of 30 g of aluminum hydroxide/15 g of magnesium hydroxide to adult horses should result in a mean hourly gastric pH ≥ 4.0 for at least 2 hours. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1687-1691)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE: To determine the intracoelemic (ICe) dose of alfaxalone required to induce loss of righting reflex (LRR) in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) and to evaluate the tactile stimulus response in unanesthetized and alfaxalone-anesthetized snakes.

ANIMALS: 8 healthy mature garter snakes.

PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 phases, snakes received each of 3 doses (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) of alfaxalone, ICe, with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Times to LRR and return of righting reflex were determined after each dose. During phase 2, unanesthetized snakes underwent tactile stimulation testing with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments once daily for 3 consecutive days to determine the baseline tactile pressure required to elicit purposeful movement. During phase 3, snakes were anesthetized with alfaxalone (30 mg/kg, ICe), and the tactile pressure required to induce purposeful movement was assessed at predetermined times after LRR.

RESULTS: Intracoelomic administration of alfaxalone at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg induced LRR in 0, 5, and 8 snakes, respectively. For snakes with LRR, median time to LRR following the 30-mg/kg dose (3.8 minutes) was significantly shorter than that following the 20-mg/kg dose (8.3 minutes); median time to return of righting reflex did not differ between the 2 doses. Mean ± SD tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement in unanesthetized snakes was 16.9 ± 14.3 g. When snakes were anesthetized, the mean tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement was significantly increased from baseline at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after LRR.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested ICe administration of alfaxalone might be effective for anesthetizing garter snakes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To qualitatively describe lung CT images obtained from sedated healthy equine neonates (≤ 14 days of age), use quantitative analysis of CT images to characterize attenuation and distribution of gas and tissue volumes within the lungs, and identify differences between lung characteristics of foals ≤ 7 days of age and foals > 7 days of age.

Animals—10 Standardbred foals between 2.5 and 13 days of age.

Procedures—Foals were sedated with butorphanol, midazolam, and propofol and positioned in sternal recumbency for thoracic CT. Image analysis software was used to exclude lung from nonlung structures. Lung attenuation was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) for analysis of whole lung and regional changes in attenuation and lung gas and tissue components. Degree of lung attenuation was classified as follows: hyperinflated or emphysema, −1,000 to −901 HU; well aerated, −900 to −501 HU; poorly aerated, −500 to −101 HU; and nonaerated, > −100 HU.

Results—Qualitative evidence of an increase in lung attenuation and patchy alveolar patterns in the ventral lung region were more pronounced in foals ≤ 7 days of age than in older foals. Quantitative analysis revealed that mean ± SD lung attenuation was greater in foals ≤ 7 days of age (−442 ± 28 HU) than in foals > 7 days of age (−521 ± 24 HU). Lung aeration and gas volumes were lower than in other regions ventrally and in the mid lung region caudal to the heart.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Identified radiographic patterns and changes in attenuation were most consistent with atelectasis and appeared more severe in foals ≤ 7 days of age than in older neonatal foals. Recognition of these changes may have implications for accurate CT interpretation in sedated neonatal foals with pulmonary disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the safety, efficacy, and effects on hemolymph gas analysis variables of sevoflurane anesthesia in Chilean rose tarantulas (Grammostola rosea).

Animals—12 subadult Chilean rose tarantulas of unknown sex.

Procedures—Spiders were anesthetized in a custom chamber with sevoflurane (5% in oxygen [1.0 L/min]), then allowed to recover in 100% oxygen. Righting reflex was evaluated every 3 minutes during anesthesia to determine time to anesthetic induction and recovery. Hemolymph samples were collected from an intracardiac location prior to and after induction of anesthesia and evaluated to determine various gas analysis variables.

Results—Mean ± SD induction and recovery times were 16 ± 5.91 minutes and 29 ± 21.34 minutes, respectively. Significant differences were detected for Po 2, base excess, and glucose and ionized magnesium concentrations between hemolymph samples obtained before anesthesia and those obtained after induction of anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that the use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic agent for Chilean rose tarantulas was safe and effective. Various hemolymph sample gas analysis values changed during anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the health status of foals derived by use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) at a university laboratory.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—14 live-born NT-derived foals.

Procedures—Medical records from 2004 through 2008 were evaluated to identify all pregnancies resulting in live-born NT-derived foals. Information obtained included gestation length, birth weight, foaling complications, gross abnormalities of the fetal membranes, appearance of the umbilicus, mentation of the foal, limb deformities, and any other abnormalities detected in the neonatal period. Clinicopathologic data were also evaluated when available. Records of 4 recipient mares during gestation were included.

Results—Six foals were clinically normal for all evaluated variables. The most common abnormalities detected in the remaining 8 foals included maladjustment, enlarged umbilical remnant, and angular deformity of the forelimbs. Two foals died within 7 days after parturition; in the remaining foals, these conditions all resolved with medical or surgical management. Large offspring syndrome and gross abnormalities of the fetal membranes were not detected. The 12 surviving foals remained healthy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associated problems of calves resulting from use of NT have been reported, but there are few data on the outcome of foals resulting from adult somatic cell NT in horses. Although this population of foals had a lower perinatal mortality rate than has been reported for NT-derived calves, some NT-derived foals required aggressive supportive care. Birth of foals derived from NT should take place at a center equipped to handle critical care of neonates.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of single manual alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) to eliminate atelectasis during CT of anesthetized foals.

ANIMALS 6 neonatal Standardbred foals.

PROCEDURES Thoracic CT was performed on spontaneously breathing anesthetized foals positioned in sternal (n = 3) or dorsal (3) recumbency when foals were 24 to 36 hours old (time 1), 4 days old (time 2), 7 days old (time 3), and 10 days old (time 4). The CT images were collected without ARMs (all times) and during ARMs with an internal airway pressure of 10, 20, and 30 cm H2O (times 2 and 3). Quantitative analysis of CT images measured whole lung and regional changes in attenuation or volume with ARMs.

RESULTS Increased attenuation and an alveolar pattern were most prominent in the dependent portion of the lungs. Subjectively, ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis; however, they did incrementally reduce attenuation, particularly in the nondependent portion of the lungs. Quantitative differences in lung attenuation attributable to position of foal were not identified. Lung attenuation decreased significantly (times 2 and 3) and lung volume increased significantly (times 2 and 3) after ARMs. Changes in attenuation and volume were most pronounced in the nondependent portion of the lungs and at ARMs of 20 and 30 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manual ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis but reduced attenuation in nondependent portions of the lungs. Positioning of foals in dorsal recumbency for CT may be appropriate when pathological changes in the ventral portion of the lungs are suspected.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To compare CT and radiographic images of the lungs in sedated healthy foals positioned in sternal recumbency and to investigate whether a relationship exists between CT-derived measurements of lung attenuation and Paco 2 and Pao 2.

ANIMALS 6 healthy Standardbred foals < 14 days of age.

PROCEDURES Thoracic CT images were acquired followed by radiographic views with each foal sedated and positioned in sternal recumbency. For each foal, both CT and radiographic images were evaluated for severity and extent of changes by lung regions on the basis of a subjective scoring system by 3 investigators. Quantitative analysis of CT images was also performed. Assessments of Pao 2 and Paco 2 were performed before sedation, following sedation prior to CT, and after CT prior to radiography.

RESULTS Interobserver agreement for CT and radiographic image scoring was strong (0.73) and fair (0.65), respectively; intraobserver agreement was near perfect for CT (0.97) and radiographic (0.94) image scoring. Increased CT attenuation and radiographic changes were identified for all foals and were preferentially distributed in the caudoventral portion of the lungs. Radiographic scores were significantly lower than CT image scores. A positive correlation (r = 0.872) between lung attenuation and CT image score was identified. A significant increase in Paco 2 was not considered clinically relevant. Significant changes in Pao 2 were not observed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that interpretation of CT images may be less subjective, compared with interpretation of radiographic images. These findings may aid in the evaluation of CT and radiographic images of neonatal foals with respiratory tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research