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Abstract

Objective—To create a stochastic model to quantify the risk that shipments of cattle from regions within the United States would contain animals seropositive for bluetongue virus and to determine shipment-level accuracy of serologic testing by use of a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA).

Sample Population—19,216 shipments containing 528,918 cattle and calves.

Procedure—Data were obtained on number of animals and state of origin of cattle in export shipments originating within the United States between January 1994 and March 2002. Probability distributions for size of export shipments were determined for all states within the United States, and distributions for agar gel immunodiffusion and c-ELISA accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) were determined from expert opinion and review of the literature. The model simulated selection of a shipment and then determined the probability that a threshold number or percentage of cattle within that shipment would have a positive c-ELISA result. Shipment-level sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value, and negative-predictive value were calculated.

Results—Substantial differences were evident in the regional probability of a shipment being declared positive, with shipments from northeastern states having the lowest probability and shipments from southwestern states having the highest probability. The c- ELISA had variable predictive values at the shipment level, depending on the threshold used and the prevalence of antibody-positive cattle within the region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results from this study will aid importers in making scientifically based decisions regarding risk of importing antibodypositive cattle. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:520–529)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether sequelae of infection differed among single versus double infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma marginale, with and without tick salivary extract, in cattle.

Animals—Eighteen 13-month old steers.

Procedures—Treatment groups of 3 cattle each included A marginale inoculated ID followed on day 35 by A phagocytophilum without tick saliva, A phagocytophilum followed on day 10 by A marginale without tick saliva, A marginale followed on day 35 by A phagocytophilum with tick saliva, A phagocytophilum followed on day 10 by A marginale with tick saliva, tissue culture control injection, and tick saliva control injection. Infection was monitored via clinical observations, CBC, serologic testing, and PCR analysis of blood and tissues.

Results—Infected cattle had significantly reduced weight gain. Anemia occurred 25 to 32 days after A marginale infection, which was attenuated by tick saliva. Parasitism was greater if cattle had not previously been inoculated with A phagocytophilum. Nine of the 12 treated cattle had positive results of PCR analysis for A phagocytophilum from at least 1 blood sample. Five tissue samples had positive results of PCR analysis for A phagocytophilum; PCR results for A marginale were positive in spleen, lung, lymph node, heart, and ear skin of infected cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated an important biological interaction between A marginale and A phagocytophilum infection as well as with tick saliva in disease kinetics and severity in cattle, which may be important for interpretation of diagnostic tests and management of disease in areas where both pathogens occur.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate seasonal patterns and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in a beef cattle herd and determine strain diversity and transition in E coli over time by use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Sample Population—456 samples of freshly passed feces collected over a 1-year period from cattle in a range-based cow-calf operation located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California.

Procedures— E coli O157:H7 was recovered from feces by use of immunomagnetic separation and 2 selective media. Virulence factors were detected via reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates were subtyped with MLVA and PFGE. Prevalence estimates were calculated and significant risk factors determined. A dendrogram was constructed on the basis of results of MLVA typing.

Results—Overall prevalence estimate for E coli O157:H7 was 10.5%, with the prevalence lowest during the winter. Mean temperature during the 30 days before collection of samples was significantly associated with prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces. Nineteen MLVA and 12 PFGE types were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A seasonal pattern was detected for prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces collected from beef cattle in California. Subtyping via MLVA and PFGE revealed a diversity of E coli O157:H7 strains in a cow-calf operation and noteworthy turnover of predominant types. Given the importance of accurately determining sources of contamination in investigations of disease outbreaks in humans, MLVA combined with PFGE should be powerful tools for epidemiologists. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1339–1347)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of twice-daily oral administration of a low-dose of trilostane treatment and assess the duration of effects after once-daily trilostane administration in dogs with naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (NOH).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—28 dogs with NOH.

Procedures—22 dogs received 0.5 to 2.5 mg of trilostane/kg (0.23 to 1.14 mg/lb) orally every 12 hours initially. At intervals, dogs were reevaluated; owner assessment of treatment response was recorded. To assess drug effect duration, 16 of the 22 dogs and 6 additional dogs underwent 2 ACTH stimulation tests 3 to 4 hours and 8 to 9 hours after once-daily trilostane administration.

Results—After 1 to 2 weeks, mean trilostane dosage was 1.4 mg/kg (0.64 mg/lb) every 12 hours (n = 22 dogs; good response [resolution of signs], 8; poor response, 14). Four to 8 weeks later, mean dosage was 1.8 mg/kg (0.82 mg/lb) every 12 or 8 hours (n = 21 and 1 dogs, respectively; good response, 15; poor response, 5; 2 dogs were ill). Eight to 16 weeks after the second reevaluation, remaining dogs had good responses (mean dosages, 1.9 mg/kg [0.86 mg/lb], q 12 h [n = 13 dogs] and 1.3 mg/kg [0.59 mg/lb], q 8 h [3]). At 3 to 4 hours and 8 to 9 hours after once-daily dosing, mean post-ACTH stimulation serum cortisol concentrations were 2.60 and 8.09 μg/dL, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with NOH, administration of trilostane at low doses every 12 hours was effective, although 2 dogs became ill during treatment. Drug effects diminished within 8 to 9 hours. Because of potential adverse effects, lower doses should be evaluated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate disease progression in sheep experimentally inoculated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and determine the Anaplasma spp seroprevalence in sheep in free-ranging flocks in the Sierra Nevada foothills and Oregon Coast Range.

Animals—10 mature ewes seronegative for Anaplasma spp and 251 sheep from 8 flocks.

Procedures—10 ewes received 1 of 3 treatments: A phagocytophilum Webster strain (n = 4), A phagocytophilum MRK strain (4), or human promyelocytic leukemia cells (control treatment [2]). Sheep were monitored for signs of clinical disease, and blood samples were obtained for serologic and PCR assay evaluation intermittently for 48 days. From a subsample of sheep from each of 8 free-ranging flocks, blood samples were obtained to determine Anaplasma spp seroprevalence.

Results—Sheep inoculated with A phagocytophilum developed subclinical or mild disease, whereas sheep inoculated with the control treatment did not develop any signs of disease. Only 2 ewes seroconverted; both had received the MRK strain. Anaplasma-specific DNA was detected in blood samples from 1 sheep in the Webster strain–inoculated group and 3 sheep in the MRK strain–inoculated group. Sheep seropositive for Anaplasma spp were detected in 5 of 8 flocks, and flocks in the Sierra Nevada foothills had higher within-flock seroprevalence (22%) than did flocks in the Oregon Coast Range (6.4%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infection with A phagocytophilum in mature sheep generally resulted in subclinical disease. Higher Anaplasma spp seroprevalence in sheep in the Sierra Nevada foothills corresponded to the geographic distribution of anaplasmosis reported for dogs, horses, and humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with naturally occurring primary hyperparathyroidism.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—210 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism and 200 randomly selected, age-matched control dogs that did not have primary hyperparathyroidism.

Procedure—Medical records for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism were reviewed for signalment; clinical features; and results of clinicopathologic testing, serum parathyroid hormone assays, and diagnostic imaging.

Results—Mean age of the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism was 11.2 years (range, 6 to 17 years). The most common clinical signs were attributable to urolithiasis or urinary tract infection (ie, straining to urinate, increased frequency of urination, and hematuria). Most dogs (149 [71%]) did not have any observable abnormalities on physical examination. All dogs had hypercalcemia, and most (136 [65%]) had hypophosphatemia. Overall, 200 of the 210 (95%) dogs had BUN and serum creatinine concentrations within or less than the reference range, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration was within reference limits in 135 of 185 (73%) dogs in which it was measured. Urolithiasis was identified in 65 (31%) dogs, and urinary tract infection was diagnosed in 61 (29%). Mean serum total calcium concentration for the control dogs was significantly lower than mean concentration for the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism, but mean BUN and serum creatinine concentrations for the control dogs were both significantly higher than concentrations for the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that urolithiasis and urinary tract infection may be associated with hypercalcemia in dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism, but that development of renal insufficiency is uncommon. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227: 756–761)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence and effect of Neospora caninum infection and persistent infection (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) on weight gain, morbidity, and mortality rate in dairy-breed steer calves located on a feedlot in California.

Design—Prospective cohort observational study.

Animals—900 dairy-breed steer calves in 2 pens.

Procedures—The 3- to 4-month-old calves were evaluated for serum antibodies against N caninum and infection with BVDV at entry to the feedlot. Five months later, sera were again analyzed for anti–N caninum antibodies; calves that were determined to have BVDV infection initially were retested to evaluate PI status. Average daily gain, morbidity, and deaths were recorded for all calves.

Results—Among 900 calves, prevalence of N caninum infection was 16.7% (95% confidence interval, 14.3% to 19.3%); prevalence of BVDV-associated PI was 0.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.03% to 0.9%). Morbidity rate and time to first illness were not significantly different between calves that were seropositive or seronegative for N caninum.Atthe second sample collection, weight and average daily gain of calves that were seropositive for N caninum was less than that of seronegative steers in 1 pen, whereas these measures did not differ between groups in the other pen. Statistical power was insufficient to evaluate the effect of BVDV PI on any outcome measurement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although N caninum serostatus had no significant effect on morbidity rate, some seropositive calves had reduced growth, compared with seronegative calves, 5 months after entry to the feedlot.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess changes in body weight, carcass quality, and fecal pathogen shedding in cull dairy cows fed a high-energy ration for 28 or 56 days prior to slaughter.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—31 adult Holstein dairy cows.

Procedures—Cows were randomly assigned to a control (immediate slaughter) group or a 28-day or 56-day feeding group. Cows in the feeding groups received a high-energy feed and were weighed every 7 days. Carcasses were evaluated by USDA employees. Fecal and blood samples were collected at the start and end of the feeding periods.

Results—Body condition score and adjusted preliminary yield grade were significantly increased in both feeding groups, compared with values for the control group; body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, and ribeye area were significantly increased after 56 days, but not after 28 days, compared with values for the control group. Average daily gain and marbling score were significantly lower after feeding for 28 days versus after 56 days. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in feces decreased from 14% to 5.6%, but this difference was not significant. Cows seropositive for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus that had signs of lymphoma and lame cows had a low average daily gain. Net loss was $71.32/cow and $112.80/cow for the 28-day and 56-day feeding groups, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feeding market dairy cows improved body condition and carcass quality. Cows seropositive for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus that have signs of lymphoma and lame cows might be poor candidates for reconditioning.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether sampling feces off the ground replicates prevalence estimates for specific pathogens obtained from fecal samples collected per rectum of adult cows, and to determine characteristics of feces on the ground (fecal pats) that are associated with subsequent identification of Campylobacter spp, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis.

Animals

A random sample of adult beef cattle from 25 herds located throughout California.

Procedure

1,115 rectal and ground fecal samples were obtained. Samples were submitted for culture of Campylobacter spp and examined, using a direct fluorescent antibody assay, to detect C parvum oocysts and G duodenalis cysts. Characteristics of fecal pats, such as volume and consistency, were recorded.

Results

Prevalence of Campylobacter spp was 5.0% (20/401) for rectal fecal samples, which was significantly greater than prevalence determined for ground fecal samples (2/402; 0.5%). Most isolates were C jejuni subsp jejuni. Prevalence of C parvum was higher in rectal fecal samples (6/557; 1.1%) than in ground fecal samples (1/558; 0.2%), but this difference was not significant. Prevalence of G duodenalis did not differ for rectal (36/557; 6.5%) versus ground (26/558; 4.7%) fecal samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Evaluation of ground fecal samples may not accurately indicate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp or C parvum in cattle but may reflect prevalence of G duodenalis Differences in prevalence estimates between the 2 methods suggest inactivation of pathogens in feces after cattle have defecated. Prevalence estimates generated by evaluation of ground fecal samples, however, may more accurately estimate environmental pathogen burden. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1352–1356)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research