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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To compare effects of a single dose of pentoxifylline (PTX), flunixin meglumine (FM), and their combination (FM/PTX) in a model of equine endotoxemia.

Animals

24 healthy horses, aged 2 to 15 years.

Procedure

4 groups (n = 6/group) received 30 ng of Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin/kg of body weight, IV, over 30 minutes, and 1 of the following preparations 15 minutes before and 8 hours after endotoxin infusion: FM, 1.1 mg/kg; PTX, 8 mg/kg; FM/PTX, 1.1 mg of FM and 8 mg of PTX/kg; and saline solution bolus (ENDO). Clinical and hematologic variables were measured over 24 hours.

Results

Compared with ENDO, FM given before endotoxin significantly reduced TxB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 concentrations, pulse, rectal temperature, and attitude score. Pentoxifylline given before endotoxin resulted in significantly higher 6-keto-PGF1 concentration at 1.5 hours and significantly lower PAI-1 activity at 12 hours. Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 activities in horses given PTX alone were not significantly different from values in those given the saline bolus. FM/PTX induced effects similar to those of FM alone on endotoxin-induced changes in temperature and TxB2 concentration, and 6-keto-PGF1 concentration was significantly lower than that in horses of the ENDO group at 1 hour. In horses of the FM group, 6-keto-PGF1 concentration was significantly lower than that in horses of the ENDO group, from 0.5 hour to 2 hours. Horses of the FM and FM/PTX groups had significantly higher IL-6 activity at 1.5 and 2 hours than did horses of the PTX and ENDO groups; those of the FM and FM/PTX groups had significantly lower WBC count than did those of the PTX and ENDO groups.

Conclusions

FM/PTX may help offset deleterious hemodynamic effects of endotoxin more effectively than does either FM or PTX alone. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1291–1299)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cats undergoing ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) for removal of inflammatory polyps or nasopharyngeal masses have altered ability to hear and whether polyp or mass removal affects auditory function as measured via air-conducted brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER).

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—21 cats.

Procedures—Cats were sedated and had otic-oral examinations to confirm presence of nasopharyngeal masses; BAER testing was done immediately prior to and following the completion of a VBO and polyp or mass removal. Recheck examination, including otic examination and BAER in sedated cats, was performed when possible.

Results—17 cats met final inclusion criteria, and long-term follow-up was available for 15. Six of 17 had deafness as measured via air-conducted BAER prior to surgery. Mean followup time was 161 days, and there was no change from presurgical status in auditory ability in any cat. Eleven of 17 developed ipsilateral Horner syndrome in the immediate postoperative period, and 1 of 16 had polyp regrowth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in cats, VBO for removal of inflammatory polyps or masses is unlikely to affect hearing as measured via air-conducted BAER. Most cats developed short-term Horner syndrome. Cats with deafness prior to surgery did not regain auditory function. Ventral bulla osteotomy to remove nasopharyngeal polyps or masses provided no functional advantage with regard to restoration of hearing, compared with other surgical techniques. Polyp recurrence and long-term adverse effects were uncommon.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To test efficacy of murine monoclonal, rabbit polyclonal recombinant equine or human tumor necrosis factor-α (rETNF or rHTNF, respectively) antibodies to inhibit native equine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity.

Animals

8 and 18 healthy adult horses for parts 1 and 2 of the study, respectively.

Procedures

In part 1, supernates from endotoxin-activated peritoneal macrophages were incubated with various dilutions of each rETNF antibody and subsequently tested for TNF activity. Serum was also obtained from a horse 1 hour after infusion with 20 ng of endotoxin/kg of body weight and was incubated with various dilutions of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF antibody. In part 2, 20 ng of endotoxin/kg was infused in horses during a 30-minute period. Fifteen minutes after the endotoxin infusion was initiated, 1 of 3 preparations was infused: 0.1 mg of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF antibody/kg, 0.1 mg of human IgG/kg, or 500 ml of 5% dextrose. Clinical and hematologic data were collected for 24 hours.

Results

Compared with the monoclonal antibody, the rabbit polyclonal rETNF antibody was more effective in inhibiting TNF activity. The 50% effective doses of the murine monoclonal rETNF, rabbit polyclonal rETNF, and rabbit rHTNF antibodies were 1.8, 0.8, and 0.6 μg of antibody/ml, respectively. In part 2, endotoxin infusion resulted in significant alternations in all variables; however, differences among treatment groups were not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Although murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal rETNF or rHTNF antibodies are capable of inhibiting native equine TNF activity in vitro, when given after initiation of endotoxemia, administration of 0.1 mg of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF/kg does not alter the response to infusion of endotoxin. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:792-797)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research