Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 1 of 1 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Benjamin E. Alcantar x
  • Cardiovascular System x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search



To describe qualitative and quantitative cardiothoracic values in geriatric Sika deer (Cervus nippon) using digital radiography, 6-lead ECG (sECG), and smartphone-based ECG (aECG).


10 healthy geriatric Sika deer (9 females and 1 male).


Deer were chemically immobilized, thoracic radiographs were obtained, and inhalant anesthesia was initiated. An sECG and aECG were simultaneously recorded for each animal using the same ECG specifications. Results were compared between devices.


Radiographically, no deer had any cardiopulmonary abnormalities. Median (range) values for the most important cardiac measurements were 170 (153–193) mm for cardiac height, 135 (122–146) mm for cardiac width, 9 (8–9) for vertebral heart score, and 99 (69–124) mm for cardiosternal contact. All deer had a normal sinus rhythm with no pathological arrhythmias noted. A significant difference between sECG and aECG was identified for minimum heart rate (49 vs 51 beats/min, respectively), P wave duration (0.05 vs 0.03 seconds), P wave amplitude (0.28 vs 0.10 mV), PR interval (0.15 vs 0.12 seconds), and QT interval (0.39 vs 0.30 seconds).


Thoracic radiographs were suitable to evaluate basic cardiothoracic morphology in Sika deer. The aECG was useful for assessing heart rate and rhythm but, compared with sECG, proved no substitute for evaluating duration and amplitude of ECG waveforms.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research