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Abstract

Objective—To compare values of lower urogenital tract urodynamic and morphometric variables determined during the prepubertal (sexually immature) period and first and second estrous cycles in healthy female Beagle littermates to determine functional and anatomic changes of the lower urogenital tract during those periods.

Animals—5 female Beagle littermates.

Procedures—Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed when dogs were 3.5, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8.5, and 9 months old and during proestrus; estrus; early, middle, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus of the first and second estrous cycles.

Results—At the end of the prepubertal period, values of urodynamic and morphometric variables increased significantly, compared with values at earlier times. Maximum bladder capacity developed when dogs were 9 months old. In all dogs, the bladder was intermittently located in an intrapelvic position during the prepubertal period; the bladder was intra-abdominal from the time dogs were 9 months old until the end of the study. Urethral pressure decreased significantly during estrus and early diestrus of the first and second estrous cycles. Bladder capacity increased significantly during diestrus of both estrous cycles. Urethral and vaginal lengths were significantly longer during proestrus and estrus than they were during anestrus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of lower urogenital tract urodynamic and morphometric variables were influenced by age and phases of the estrous cycle of immature and young adult Beagles in this study. Age of dog and phase of estrous cycle should be considered when interpreting urodynamic and vaginourethrography data.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the values of the urodynamic parameters of the lower portion of the urinary tract and vaginourethral measurements obtained during the phases of the estrous cycle in dogs and determine possible functional or anatomic modifications of the lower portion of the urinary tract associated with those phases.

Animals—7 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed in each dog during proestrus; estrus; early, mid, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths (UFPL and UAPL, respectively), integrated pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.

Results—For all measurements, significant interindividual variation was detected. Integrated and threshold pressures, APL, and each morphometric value significantly increased from late anestrus to proestrus. Compared with other phases, MUP, MUCP, and integrated pressure values were significantly lower in estrus and early diestrus; UAPL and UFPL values were significantly lower in late diestrus. At each cycle phase in old dogs, MUP, MUCP, threshold pressure, and vaginal length and width were significantly lower (except in proestrus for vaginal measurements) and threshold volume and compliance values were significantly higher, compared with middle-aged dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urodynamic and morphometric measurements of the lower portion of the urogenital tract are affected by the changes in hormonal balance that occur during the estrous cycle. In sexually intact female dogs, estrous phase determination is important for the interpretation of urodynamic data. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1075–1083)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the urodynamic and hemodynamic effects of different dosages of phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine and determine effective dosages in increasing urethral resistance in female dogs.

Animals—20 sexually intact female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 4 groups and received phenylpropanolamine once, twice, or 3 times daily, or ephedrine twice daily, for 14 days. On days 0, 7, and 14, urethral pressure profiles were performed while dogs were anesthetized with propofol. Variables recorded included maximum urethral pressure, maximum urethral closure pressure, integrated pressure, functional profile length, anatomic profile length, plateau distance, distance before maximum urethral pressure, and maximum meatus pressure. Arterial and central venous pressures were measured before anesthetic induction and 10 and 35 minutes after induction.

Results—Administration of phenylpropanolamine once daily or ephedrine twice daily significantly increased maximum urethral pressure and maximum urethral closure pressure. Values for integrated pressure were significantly increased after 14 days of once-daily administration of phenylpropanolamine. Variables did not change significantly from day 7 to day 14. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures increased significantly during the treatment periods, and arterial pressure decreased during propofol infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of phenylpropanolamine once daily or ephedrine twice daily increased urethral resistance in clinically normal dogs and may be recommended for management of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. Treatment efficacy may be assessed after 1 week. Dogs with concurrent cardiovascular disease should be monitored for blood pressure while receiving α-adrenergic agents because of the effects on diastolic and mean arterial pressure.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To compare retrograde filling cystometry at infusion rates of 5, 10, and 20 mL/min with diuresis cystometry for determination of an appropriate infusion rate and to confirm the reproducibility of measurements obtained by urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) and cystometry in female Beagles.

Animals—6 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Successive UPP and cystometry were performed by use of a water perfusion catheter on dogs anesthetized with propofol. Dogs randomly underwent each of the following at 1-week intervals: retrograde filling cystometry at 5, 10, and 20 mL/min, and diuresis cystometry. The maximum urethral pressure and closure pressure, functional and anatomic profile lengths, threshold pressure, threshold volume, and compliance were measured.

Results—For each UPP variable, significant differences were found among dogs, but no significant differences were found in intra- or interstudy measurements for individual dogs. For retrograde filling cystometry, threshold pressure was not significantly different between a 5 and 10 mL/min infusion rate. Threshold pressure was significantly higher during retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min, compared with 5 and 10 mL/min, and was associated with bladder wall damages. Threshold pressure was significantly lower during diuresis cystometry, compared with retrograde filling cystometries. Threshold volume and compliance were not significantly different among retrograde filling cystometries but were significantly higher during diuresis cystometry.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min leads to unacceptable sudden increase in threshold bladder pressure. Retrograde filling cystometry at 10 mL/min can be recommended in a clinical setting, shortening the anesthesia time. However, diuresis cystometry approximates physiologic bladder filling most accurately. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:574–579)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the urodynamic and morphologic effects of the administration of estriol alone and in combination with phenylpropanolamine on the lower portion of the urogenital tract in female dogs.

Animals—3 sexually intact and 3 spayed female Beagles without urinary incontinence.

Procedure—Dogs received estriol (2 mg, PO) once daily for 7 days followed by estriol (2 mg, PO) and phenylpropanolamine (1.5 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 7 days. Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed before treatment (day 0) and at days 7 and 14. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP) and closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths, integrated pressure (IP), plateau, distance before MUP, maximum meatus pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.

Results—Before treatment, no urodynamic differences were observed between the 2 groups; however, vaginal length and width were significantly shorter in spayed dogs. Compared with day 0 values, estriol treatment significantly increased MUP, MUCP, and IP values at day 7, but at day 14, this effect decreased despite phenylpropanolamine administration. No morphologic changes from baseline were detected after either treatment in any dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that estriol mainly acts on the urethral sphincter mechanism by increasing urethral resistance in sexually intact and spayed female dogs without urinary incontinence. Administration of estriol and phenylpropanolamine did not increase the urethral resistance more than estriol alone. The urodynamic effects of estriol in female dogs with urinary incontinence remain to be elucidated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe functional and anatomic changes of the lower urogenital tract of healthy male dogs during the sexually immature period and up to 2 years of age by urodynamic and morphometric assessment.

ANIMALS

6 sexually intact male Beagle littermates.

PROCEDURES

Dogs underwent electromyography-coupled urodynamic tests, CT-assisted retrograde urethrography, prostatic washes, and blood sampling monthly from 4 through 12 months of age and then at 3-month intervals. Urodynamic and morphometric variables and serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations were analyzed by statistical methods.

RESULTS

Integrated pressure of the urethra was significantly increased beginning at 8 months of age, compared with earlier time points. Urethral pressure peak amplitudes varied among anatomic regions. During bladder filling, few electromyographic signals were concurrent with urethral pressure peaks; these were most commonly detected in the penile portion of the urethra. Urethral length and prostate gland volume were significantly greater from 7 to 24 months of age than at younger ages. Urethral length was approximately 26 to 27 cm after 9 months, and prostate gland volume was approximately 11 to 12 cm after 11 months of age. Serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations correlated with prostate gland volume. Urinary bladder threshold volume was significantly increased at 6 months of age, compared with that at 4 months, with a maximum of 197.7 mL at 24 months.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Urethral resistance was acquired at approximately 8 months of age, when growth of the lower urinary tract was incomplete. Electromyographic and integrated pressure measurement results and the distribution and amplitude of urethral pressure peaks highlighted the potential role of the prostate gland and possibly the bulbocavernosus muscles in control of continence.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research