Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Anne M. Vachon x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Objective

To evaluate the use of abdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in horses with signs of colic.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

226 horses with signs of acute abdominal pain were compared to 20 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

The following were performed in horses with signs of colic: physical examination, CBC, abdominal fluid analysis, placement of a nasogastric tube to obtain gastric reflux, abdominal palpation per rectum, and ultrasonography of the abdomen. Results of ultrasonography were compared with the surgical, necropsy, or medical findings.

Results

Ultrasonography of horses with primary small-intestine lesions revealed images of small intestine with a wall thickness of 0.2 to 1.8 cm and a diameter of 3.6 to 13.5 cm without evidence of motility. Horses with peritonitis did have evidence of small-intestine motility on ultrasonography with a wall thickness of 0.5 to 1.3 cm and a diameter of 2 to 5.1 cm. Horses with primary large-colon lesions or small-colon impactions had small-intestine diameters on ultrasonographic evaluation of 3 to 7.1 cm. In these horses, small-intestine motility was detected.

If abnormal small intestine that lacked motility was detected by ultrasonographic evaluation, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for small-intestine strangulation obstructions were 100%. Detection of distended or edematous small intestine by abdominal palpation per rectum provided a sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 98%, positive predictive value of 89%, and negative predictive value of 89% for small-intestine strangulation obstructions.

Clinical Implications

The use of abdominal ultrasonography in horses with signs of colic is accurate for detecting small-intestine strangulation obstructions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1597–1601)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Periosteal autografts were used for repair of large osteochondral defects in 10 horses aged 2 to 3 years old. In each horse, osteochondral defects measuring 1.0 × 1.0 cm2 were induced bilaterally on the distal articular surface of each radial carpal bone. Control and experimental defects were drilled. Periosteum was harvested from the proximal portion of the tibia and was glued into the principal defects, using a fibrin adhesive. Control defects were glued, but were not grafted.

Sixteen weeks after the grafting procedure, the quality of the repair tissue of control and grafted defects was assessed biochemically. Total collagen content and the proportion of type-II collagen were determined. Galactosamine and glucosamine contents also were determined. From these measurements, contents of chondroitin and keratan sulfate and total glycosaminoglycan, and galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio were calculated. All biochemical variables were compared with those of normal equine articular cartilage taken from the same site in another group of clinically normal horses. Total collagen content was determined on the basis of 4-hydroxyproline content, using a colorimetric method. The proportions of collagen types I and II in the repair tissue were assessed by electrophoresis of their cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptides on sodium dodecyl sulfate slab gels. Peptide ratios were computed and compared with those of standard mixtures of type-I and type-II collagens. Galactosamine and glucosamine contents were determined by use of ion chromatography.

In general, the biochemical composition of repair tissue of grafted and nongrafted defects was similar, but clearly differed from that of normal articular cartilage. Total glycosaminoglycan content, galactosamine and glucosamine contents, and galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio of grafted and nongrafted defects were all significantly (P < 0.05) less than corresponding values in normal equine articular cartilage. By contrast, total collagen content of neocartilaginous tissues of grafted and nongrafted defects was greater than that of normal articular cartilage, although the difference was not significant. The proportion of type-I and type-II collagens in repair tissue in grafted and nongrafted defects was 70 and 30%, respectively. The fibrous nature of the repair tissue reported in a companion morphologic and histochemical study was substantiated by the biochemical results. We concluded that use of periosteal autografts did not improve the healing of osteochondral defects.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Articular cartilage specimens from the distal articular surface of 32 radiocarpal bones from 24 2- to 5-year-old horses were analyzed. The total collagen content was determined on the basis of the 4-hydroxyproline content, using a colorimetric method. A method for estimating the proportions of types-I and -II collagen by measuring spectrophotometric densities of specific cyanogen bromide peptide bands from mixtures of types-I and -II collagen on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels was used. The cyanogen bromide peptides representative of each collagen types-I and -II were identified. The peptide ratios were then computed for each of several standards of type-I and -II mixtures. A standard curve was derived from the correlation between these ratios and the corresponding proportions of type-II collagen in standard mixtures. Galactosamine and glucosamine content (hexosamines) were measured by ion chromatography. The galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio, chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate values, and total glycosaminoglycan content were derived from the measured hexosamine content.

The total collagen content averaged 556 mg/g (55.6 mg/100 mg) of tissue (dry weight, [dw]). Type-II collagen was the major collagen type in normal articular cartilage specimens. The ratio of the area under the αl (II)CBIO peak to the area under the αl (I)CB 7,8 + αl (II)CB11 peak was a second-order polynomial function of the proportion of type-II collagen in the specimens. The mean galactosamine and glucosamine content were 20.6 mg/g and 7.9 mg/g (dw), respectively. The mean galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio was 3.74 ± 0.62. Chondroitin sulfate values, keratan sulfate values, and total glycosaminoglycan content were 53.3 ± 4.9 mg/g, 19.9 ± 3.6 mg/g, and 73.2 ± 7.9 mg/g (dw), respectively. There was no significant correlation between the age of the horses and any of the chemical values (P > 0.1). The biochemical composition of articular cartilage in the horse is similar to that of other species.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The use of periosteal autografts to resurface osteochondral defects was investigated in 10 horses (2 to 3 years old), and the repair tissue was characterized morphologically. Middle carpal joint arthrotomies were made, and osteochondral defects were induced bilaterally on the distal articular surface of each radial carpal bone. Each defect measured approximatively 1 cm2 and extended 3 mm into the subchondral bone plate. Residual subchondral bone plate of control and principal defects was perforated by drilling. A sterile fibrin adhesive was made by mixing a fibrinogen component and a thrombin component. A periosteal autograft was harvested from the proximal portion of the tibia and was glued onto the recipient osseous surface, with its cambium facing the joint cavity. Control defects were glued, but not grafted. Horses were walked 1 hour daily on a walker, starting at postoperative week 7 and continuing for 9 weeks. Sixteen weeks after the grafting procedure was done, carpal radiography was performed, after which horses were euthanatized. Quality of repair tissue of control and grafted defects was evaluated and compared grossly, histologically, and histochemically. Using a reticule, the proportions of various repair tissue types filling each defect were quantitated.

Seven weeks after the grafting procedure was done, bilateral arthroscopy revealed synovial adhesions and marginal pannus formation in control and grafted defects. None of the autografts was found floating unattached within the respective middle carpal joints. At 16 weeks, the gross appearance of most grafted and nongrafted defects was similar, and repair was dominated by a fibrous pannus. In 4 grafted defects, bone had formed either concentrically within the defect or eccentrically in the fibrous adhesions between the defect and the joint margin. Histologically, all grafted and nongrafted defects were repaired similarly by infiltration of a mixture of fibrous tissue, fibrocartilage, and bone. Fibrous tissue was the predominant tissue in most defects and its mean proportion was 56 and 59% in the grafted and nongrafted defects, respectively. Fibrocartilaginous tissue in the deeper layers approximated 20%, and woven bone at the base of the defect was 20% in all defects. Histochemically, difference in staining for proteoglycans was not observed between grafted and nongrafted defects. Little remaining original periosteal graft tissue was evident at the defect sites. The only distinguishing feature of grafted defects was the presence of islands of bone formation either at the defect site (n = 2 horses), or in somewhat dorsally displaced tissue that was incorporated in fibrous adhesions (n = 2 horses). It was concluded that use of periosteal autografts did not improve the healing of osteochondral defects of the distal portion of the radial carpal bone. The repair tissue produced in grafted and nongrafted defects was similar and was principally fibrous in nature.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Using biodegradable pins, sternal cartilage autografts were fixed into osteochondral defects of the distal radial carpal bone in ten 2 to 3-year-old horses. The defects measured 1 cm2 at the surface and were 4 mm deep. Control osteochondral defects of contralateral carpi were not grafted. After confinement for 7 weeks, horses were walked 1 hour daily on a walker for an additional 9 weeks. Horses were euthanatized at 16 weeks. Half of the repair tissue was processed for histologic and histochemical (H&E and safranin-O fast green) examinations. The other half was used for the following biochemical analyses: type-I and type-II collagen contents, total glycosaminoglycan content, and galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio. On histologic examination, the repair tissue in the grafted defects consisted of hyaline-like cartilage. Repair tissue in the nongrafted defects consisted of fibrocartilaginous tissue, with fibrous tissue in surface layers. On biochemical analysis, repair tissue of grafted defects was composed predominantly of type-II collagen; repair tissue of nongrafted defects was composed of type-I collagen. Total glycosaminoglycan content of repair tissue of grafted defects was similar to that of normal articular cartilage. Total glycosaminoglycan content of nongrafted defects was 62% of that of normal articular cartilage (P < 0.05). Repair tissue of all defects was characterized by galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of normal articular cartilage. These results at 16 weeks after grafting indicate that sternal cartilage may potentially constitute a suitable substitute for articular cartilage in large osteochondral defects of horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research