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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare IV doses of alfaxalone and ketamine needed to facilitate orotracheal intubation and assess effects of each treatment on selected physiologic variables in goats undergoing orthopedic surgery with isoflurane anesthesia.

ANIMALS

18 healthy adult goats.

PROCEDURES

Behavior was assessed before and after sedation with midazolam (0.1 mg/kg, IV) for IV catheter placement. Anesthesia was induced with additional midazolam (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and alfaxalone (n = 9) or ketamine (9) at 2 mg/kg, IV, over 30 seconds. An additional dose of alfaxalone or ketamine (1 mg/kg) was given IV if needed for intubation; anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and IV fluids with ketamine (0.5 to 1 mg/kg/h). Direct systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean (MAP) arterial blood pressures; heart rate; and respiratory rate were recorded before induction, immediately after intubation, and during surgery. Qualitative anesthetic induction and recovery characteristics were assessed. Variables were compared within and between groups by statistical methods.

RESULTS

No preinduction variables differed significantly between groups. Postintubation and 30-minute intraoperative SAP, DAP, and MAP were higher for the ketamine group than for the alfaxalone group; within the alfaxalone group, postintubation SAP, MAP, and respiratory rate prior to mechanical ventilation were lower than respective preinduction values. All alfaxalone-group goats were intubated after 1 dose of the induction agent; 5 of 9 ketamine-group goats required an additional (1-mg/kg) dose. Postoperative recovery was good to excellent for all animals.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both drugs were suitable for induction of anesthesia after sedation with midazolam, but most goats required higher doses of ketamine to allow intubation. For situations in which alfaxalone administration is appropriate, the potential for decreased arterial blood pressures and respiratory rate should be considered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of various combinations of acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, hydromorphone, and glycopyrrolate, followed by anesthetic induction with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult female Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were instrumented for hemodynamic measurements while anesthetized with isoflurane. Two hours after recovery, dogs received 1 of 4 IM combinations in a crossover design with 1 week between treatments: hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.005 mg/kg; HA); hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine (0.0025 mg/kg; HD); hydromorphone, acepromazine, and dexmedetomidine (HAD); and hydromorphone, acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, and glycopyrrolate (0.02 mg/kg; HADG). Sedation was scored after 30 minutes. Physiologic variables and cardiac index were measured after sedation, after anesthetic induction with propofol, and every 15 minutes during maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane for 60 minutes (target expired concentration at 760 mm Hg, 1.3%).

RESULTS

Sedation scores were not significantly different among treatments. Mean ± SD cardiac index was significantly higher for the HA (202 ± 45 mL/min/kg) and HADG (185 ± 59 mL/min/kg) treatments than for the HD (88 ± 31 mL/min/kg) and HAD (103 ± 25 mL/min/kg) treatments after sedation and through the first 15 minutes of isoflurane anesthesia. No ventricular arrhythmias were noted with any treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In healthy dogs, IM administration of HADG before propofol and isoflurane anesthesia provided acceptable cardiopulmonary function with no adverse effects. This combination should be considered for routine anesthetic premedication in healthy dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research