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- Author or Editor: Ann E. Hohenhaus x
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Objective—To determine whether blood type, breed, or sex were risk factors for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in dogs and whether bacteremia was common in dogs with IMHA.
Animals—33 dogs with IMHA, 1,014 dogs without IMHA for which blood type (dog erythrocyte antigens 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) was known, 15,668 dogs without IMHA for which breed was known, and 15,589 dogs without IMHA for which sex was known.
Procedure—Blood type, breed, and sex distribution of dogs with IMHA were compared with data for control dogs with Fisher exact tests and by calculating odds ratios (ORs). Results of bacterial culture of blood samples were documented for dogs with IMHA, when available.
Results—Dog erythrocyte antigen 7 was associated with a significant protective effect (OR, 0.1) in Cocker Spaniels with IMHA (n = 10), compared with control dogs. Cocker Spaniels, Bichon Frise, Miniature Pinschers, Rough-coated Collies, and Finnish Spitz had a significantly increased risk of IMHA, as did female dogs (OR, 2.1). Blood samples from 12 dogs with IMHA were submitted for bacterial culture, and none had bacteremia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that blood type, breed, and sex may play a role in IMHA in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:232–235)
Objectives—To determine incidence and identify predisposing factors for sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in dogs with lymphoma that were treated with cyclophosphamide and to evaluate whether furosemide administered IV concurrently with cyclophosphamide decreased the incidence of SHC.
Animals—216 dogs with lymphoma.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with lymphoma that received cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in accordance with 1 of 2 protocols, with or without concurrent IV administration of furosemide, were examined. Data for the 2 groups were analyzed to determine the incidence and predisposing factors (age, breed, sex, weight, previous or preexisting disease, previous or preexisting urinary tract infection, neutropenia, azotemia, dose, and number of cyclophosphamide treatments) for cyclophosphamide-associated SHC.
Results—Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC developed in 12 of 133 (9%) dogs that had not received concurrent administration of furosemide and cyclophosphamide treatments; of the 83 dogs that had received furosemide, only 1 (1.2%) developed SHC. Dogs receiving cyclophosphamide and furosemide concurrently were significantly less likely to develop SHC than dogs that did not receive furosemide. Dogs with previous or preexisting immune-mediated disease were significantly more likely to develop cyclophosphamide-associated SHC.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results suggested an association between IV administration of furosemide concurrently with cyclophosphamide and decreased incidence of cyclophosphamide- associated SHC. Incidence of cyclophosphamide- associated SHC was similar in treated dogs that did not receive concurrent furosemide to that observed for other studies in which cyclophosphamide was administered orally. Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC appeared to develop early during the course of chemotherapy when furosemide was not administered concurrently with cyclophosphamide. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1388–1393)
Objective—To determine the number of and reasons for RBC transfusions, incidence of acute transfusion reactions, prevalence of blood types, volume of blood administered, change in PCV, and clinical outcome in cats.
Animals—126 cats that received RBC transfusions.
Procedure—Medical records of cats that received whole blood or packed RBC transfusions were reviewed for signalment, blood type, pre- and posttransfusion PCV, volume of blood product administered, clinical diagnosis and cause of anemia, clinical signs of acute transfusion reactions, and clinical outcome.
Results—Mean volume of whole blood administered IV was 17.2 mL/kg (7.8 mL/lb) versus 9.3 mL/kg (4.2 mL/lb) for packed RBCs. Ninety-four percent of cats had blood type A. Mean increase in PCV among all cats was 6%. Fifty-two percent of cats had anemia attributed to blood loss, 10% had anemia attributed to hemolysis, and 38% had anemia attributed to erythropoietic failure. Acute transfusion reactions occurred in 11 cats. Sixty percent of cats survived until discharge.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—RBC transfusions resulted in an increase in PCV in cats with all causes of anemia in this study. The rate of death was greater than in cats that did not receive transfusions, but seriousness of the underlying disease in the 2 groups may not be comparable. Death rate of cats that received transfusions was not attributable to a high rate of transfusion reactions. Results confirm that pretransfusion blood typing or crossmatching is required to minimize the risk of adverse reactions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:920–923)
Objective—To determine clinical and clinicopathologic features of a chronic intermittent severe hemolytic anemia characterized by erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Abyssinian and Somali cats.
Animals—13 Abyssinian and 5 Somali cats.
Procedures—History, pedigree information, and results of routine laboratory tests, special erythrocyte studies, and histologic evaluation of splenic and hepatic specimens were analyzed.
Results—Age at which clinical signs of anemia were first apparent ranged from 6 months to 5 years. Ten cats had splenomegaly. Most often, the PCV was between 15 and 25%, but it was as low as 5% at some times. The anemia was characterized by macrocytosis and mild to moderate reticulocytosis, but no poikilocytosis. Hyperglobulinemia, lymphocytosis, mild hyperbilirubinemia, and high hepatic enzyme activities were common findings. Results of Coombs tests and tests for infectious diseases were negative. The erythrocytic osmotic fragility was high in affected cats (mean osmotic fragility, 0.66 to 0.78%), compared with healthy cats (0.48 to 0.58). No specific membrane protein abnormality, erythrocyte enzyme deficiency, or hemoglobinopathy was identified. Histologic evaluation of splenic and hepatic specimens revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis and hemosiderosis. Four of the 5 Somali cats were closely related.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of results of pedigree analyses, the apparent breed predilection, and the exclusion of other known causes of anemia in cats, we believe that the hemolytic anemia in these cats was likely a result of a novel hereditary erythrocyte defect. A genetic predisposition to immunemediated destruction of erythrocytes could not be ruled out. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1483–1491)
To evaluate the safety of oral administration of a d-ribose-l-cysteine (RibCys) supplement to dogs and the effect of this supplementation on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) concentration.
24 healthy adult dogs.
In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, dogs received 500 mg of a RibCys supplement or placebo (n = 12/group), PO, every 12 hours for 4 weeks. Dogs were evaluated weekly by means of a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and owner-completed quality-of-life questionnaire. Erythrocyte GSH concentration was measured on day 0 (ie, the day before treatment began) and weekly during supplementation.
No dose-limiting adverse effects were noted in any dog. Two dogs in each group had mild, self-limiting diarrhea and anemia. No significant increase in erythrocyte GSH concentration was noted in either group at any time point. Two dogs in the RibCys group had improved skin and coat health and improved clinical signs of osteoarthritis. No clinical or owner-perceived improvements were noted in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The RibCys supplement was safe and well tolerated in all dogs. Owners reported improvements in dermatologic and orthopedic conditions in some dogs in the RibCys group. No significant differences were observed in erythrocyte GSH concentration before or after RibCys treatment. This lack of significant differences may have been attributable to the use of healthy dogs, which would not be expected to have depleted GSH concentrations. Given the observed safety profile of RibCys, additional research is warranted to explore the potential usefulness of RibCys supplementation in dogs with cancer and those undergoing treatment for cancer.
Objective—To describe the procedure for autologous blood donation and associated complications in cats undergoing partial craniectomy for mass removal.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—15 cats with intracranial mass confirmed by computed tomographic scan, no evidence of renal failure, and PCV ≥ 22%.
Procedure—One unit (60 ml) of blood was collected and stored 7 to 17 days before surgery and transfused during the perioperative period if needed. The PCV was measured before donation, before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery to assess effect of donation on PCV before surgery and effect of transfusion on PCV after surgery. Cats were evaluated for donation complications, iatrogenic anemia, and adverse reactions associated with administration of autologous blood.
Results—Complications associated with phlebotomy were not detected. Fifteen cats underwent partial craniectomy 7 to 17 days after blood donation; all had histologic confirmation of meningioma by examination of tissue obtained at surgery. Eleven cats received autologous blood transfusions. None of the cats received allogeneic blood transfusions. Transfusion reactions were not observed. Subclinical iatrogenic anemia was detected in 3 cats. Two cats were considered to have received excessive transfusion, and 3 cats received inadequate transfusion. All cats undergoing partial craniectomy were discharged from the hospital and were alive > 6 months after surgery.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Autologous blood donation before surgery was considered safe for cats undergoing partial craniectomy for resection of meningioma. The only complication observed was iatrogenic anemia. The procedure contributed to blood conservation in our hospital. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1584–1588)