Objective—To compare anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects in dogs after IM administration of dexmedetomidine (7.5 μg/kg)–butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg)–tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg; DBTZ) or dexmedetomidine (15.0 μg/kg)-tramadol (3.0 mg/kg)-ketamine (3.0 mg/kg; DTrK) combinations.
Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Each dog received DBTZ and DTrK in a randomized, crossover-design study with a 5-day interval between treatments. Cardiorespiratory variables and duration and quality of sedation-anesthesia (assessed via auditory stimulation and sedation-anesthesia scoring) and analgesia (assessed via algometry and electrical nerve stimulation) were evaluated at predetermined intervals.
Results—DBTZ or DTrK induced general anesthesia sufficient for endotracheal intubation ≤ 7 minutes after injection. Anesthetic quality and time from drug administration to standing recovery (131.5 vs 109.5 minutes after injection of DBTZ and DTrK, respectively) were similar between treatments. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer with DBTZ treatment, compared with DTrK treatment. Analgesic effects were significantly greater with DBTZ treatment than with DTrK treatment at several time points. Transient hypertension (mean arterial blood pressure > 135 mm Hg), bradycardia (heart rate < 60 beats/min), and hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 90% via pulse oximetry) were detected during both treatments. Tidal volume decreased significantly from baseline with both treatments and was significantly lower after DBTZ administration, compared with DTrK, at several time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DBTZ or DTrK rapidly induced short-term anesthesia and analgesia in healthy dogs. Further research is needed to assess efficacy of these drug combinations for surgical anesthesia. Supplemental 100% oxygen should be provided when DBTZ or DTrK are used.
Objective—To determine the cardiovascular and respiratory
effects of water immersion in horses recovering
from general anesthesia.
Animals—6 healthy adult horses.
Procedure—Horses were anesthetized 3 times with
halothane and recovered from anesthesia while positioned
in lateral or sternal recumbency in a padded
recovery stall or while immersed in a hydropool.
Cardiovascular and pulmonary functions were monitored
before and during anesthesia and during recovery
until horses were standing. Measurements and
calculated variables included carotid and pulmonary
arterial blood pressures (ABP and PAP, respectively),
cardiac output, heart and respiratory rates, arterial
and mixed venous blood gases, minute ventilation,
end expiratory transpulmonary pressure (PendXes),
maximal change in transpulmonary pressure
(ΔPtpmax), total pulmonary resistance (RL), dynamic
compliance (Cdyn), and work of breathing ().
Results—Immersion in water during recovery from
general anesthesia resulted in values of ABP, PAP, PendXes, ΔPtpmax, RL, and that were significantly greater and values of Cdyn that were significantly less,
compared with values obtained during recovery in a padded stall. Mode of recovery had no significant
effect on any other measured or calculated variable.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in
pulmonary and cardiovascular function between horses
during recovery from anesthesia while immersed
in water and in a padded recovery stall were attributed
to the increased effort needed to overcome the
extrathoracic hydrostatic effects of immersion. The
combined effect of increased extrathoracic pressure
and PAP may contribute to an increased incidence of
pulmonary edema in horses during anesthetic recovery
in a hydropool. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1903–1910)
Objective—To evaluate hemodynamic effects in dogs after IM administration of dexmedetomidine (7.5 μg/kg, butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (3 mg/kg [DBTZ]) or dexmedetomidine (15 μg/kg), butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg), and ketamine (3 mg/kg [DBK]).
Animals—5 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Each dog received DBTZ and DBK in a randomized crossover study with a 48-hour interval between treatments. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen while instrumentation with Swan-Ganz and arterial catheters was performed. Following instrumentation, hemodynamic measurements were recorded at 3.54% (1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration) sevoflurane; then sevoflurane administration was discontinued, and dogs were allowed to recover. Six hours after cessation of sevoflurane administration, baseline hemodynamic measurements were recorded, each dog was given an IM injection of DBTZ or DBK, and hemodynamic measurements were obtained at predetermined intervals for 70 minutes.
Results—DBTZ and DBK induced hypoventilation (Paco2, approx 60 to 70 mm Hg), respiratory acidosis (pH, approx 7.2), hypertension (mean arterial blood pressure, approx 115 to 174 mm Hg), increases in systemic vascular resistance, and reflex bradycardia. Cardiac output, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption following DBTZ or DBK administration were similar to those following sevoflurane administration to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia. Blood l-lactate concentrations remained within the reference range at all times for all protocols.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, both DBTZ and DBK maintained oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption to tissues and blood lactate concentrations within the reference range. However, ventilation should be carefully monitored and assisted when necessary to prevent hypoventilation.
OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas.
ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas.
PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mm). Five images (2 molar, 2 premolar, and mandibular incisor teeth) were selected from each protocol for evaluation by 3 veterinary radiologists. For each image, tooth root visibility and sharpness and image noise artifact were subjectively evaluated on a 3-point scoring system.
RESULTS Slice thickness significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness but did not affect image noise artifact. Acquisition mode significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness as well as image noise artifact. Tooth root visibility and sharpness did not differ significantly between the helical and sequential images when the slice thickness was 1.25 mm. Image noise artifact was greater for helical images than sequential images but did not differ by slice thickness within either acquisition mode.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for a 64-slice CT scanner, the optimal protocol for the acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas was a sequential scan with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores.
RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.