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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the use of abdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in horses with signs of colic.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

226 horses with signs of acute abdominal pain were compared to 20 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

The following were performed in horses with signs of colic: physical examination, CBC, abdominal fluid analysis, placement of a nasogastric tube to obtain gastric reflux, abdominal palpation per rectum, and ultrasonography of the abdomen. Results of ultrasonography were compared with the surgical, necropsy, or medical findings.

Results

Ultrasonography of horses with primary small-intestine lesions revealed images of small intestine with a wall thickness of 0.2 to 1.8 cm and a diameter of 3.6 to 13.5 cm without evidence of motility. Horses with peritonitis did have evidence of small-intestine motility on ultrasonography with a wall thickness of 0.5 to 1.3 cm and a diameter of 2 to 5.1 cm. Horses with primary large-colon lesions or small-colon impactions had small-intestine diameters on ultrasonographic evaluation of 3 to 7.1 cm. In these horses, small-intestine motility was detected.

If abnormal small intestine that lacked motility was detected by ultrasonographic evaluation, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for small-intestine strangulation obstructions were 100%. Detection of distended or edematous small intestine by abdominal palpation per rectum provided a sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 98%, positive predictive value of 89%, and negative predictive value of 89% for small-intestine strangulation obstructions.

Clinical Implications

The use of abdominal ultrasonography in horses with signs of colic is accurate for detecting small-intestine strangulation obstructions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1597–1601)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate associations among etiologic classifications of seizures and signalment, clinical signs, and outcome in cats with various seizure disorders.

Study Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—91 cats evaluated for seizure disorders at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2000 through 2004.

Procedures—Data regarding characteristics of the cats and their seizures were obtained from medical records. Seizures were classified as reactive, symptomatic, or idiopathic. Survival times were displayed as Kaplan-Meier curves, and differences between etiologic classifications were assessed by log-rank test.

Results—Over the 5-year period, the incidence of seizures among all cats evaluated at the hospital was 2.1%. Etiology was classified as reactive in 20 (22%) cats, symptomatic in 45 (50%), idiopathic or presumptive idiopathic in 23 (25%), and cardiac syncope in 3 (3%). Focal seizures with or without secondary generalization were recorded for 47 (52%) cats, and primary generalized seizures with or without status epilepticus were recorded for 44 (48%). Etiology was not associated with seizure type. However, mean age of cats with idiopathic seizures (3.5 years) was significantly lower than that of cats with reactive seizures (8.2 years) or symptomatic seizures (8.1 years). The 1-year survival rate for cats with idiopathic seizures (0.82) was longer than that for cats with reactive (0.50) or symptomatic (0.16) seizures.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seizure etiology was symptomatic or reactive in most cats. Underlying disease was not associated with seizure type. Cats with idiopathic seizures lived longer than did cats with reactive or symptomatic seizures but were also younger.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the use of measuring anti-coronavirus IgG in CSF for the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) involving the CNS in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—CSF and serum samples from 67 cats.

Procedures—CSF and serum samples were allocated into 4 groups: cats with FIP involving the CNS (n = 10), cats with FIP not involving the CNS (13), cats with CNS disorders caused by diseases other than FIP (29), and cats with diseases other than FIP and not involving the CNS (15). Cerebrospinal fluid was evaluated for concentrations of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and total protein. Anti-coronavirus IgG was measured in CSF and serum by indirect immunofluorescence assay.

Results—CSF IgG (range of titers, 1:32 to 1:4,096) was detected in 12 cats, including 6 cats with neurologic manifestation of FIP, 4 cats with FIP not involving the CNS, and 2 cats with brain tumors. Cerebrospinal fluid IgG was detected only in cats with correspondingly high serum IgG titers (range, 1:4,096 to 1:16,384) and was positively correlated with serum IgG titers (r = 0.652; P < 0.01), but not with any other CSF parameter. Blood contamination of CSF resulted in ≤ 333 erythrocytes/μL in cats with CSF IgG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The correlation between serum and CSF IgG and the fact that CSF IgG was detected only in strongly seropositive cats suggested that CSF anti-coronavirus IgG was derived from blood. Measurement of anti-coronavirus IgG in CSF was of equivocal clinical use.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether healthy dogs given high doses of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) develop gastrointestinal tract ulcers and hemorrhage.

Animals

19 healthy male hound-type dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were assigned randomly to intravenously receive high doses of MPSS (30 mg/kg of body weight, initially, then 15 mg/kg 2 and 6 hours later, and, subsequently, every 6 hours for a total of 48 hours; n = 10) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (9). Gastroduodenoscopy was performed before and after treatment. Endoscopic evidence of gross hemorrhage in the cardia, fundus, antrum, and duodenum of each dog was graded from none (0) to severe (3), and a total stomach score was calculated as the sum of the regional gastric scores. Number of ulcers were recorded. The pH of gastric fluid and evidence of occult gastric and fecal blood were measured. Food retention was recorded.

Results

Gastric hemorrhage was evident in all dogs after MPSS administration and was severe in 9 of 10 dogs but not visible in any dog after saline treatment. Occult gastric blood was detected more commonly (9/10 vs 2/9), median gastric acidity was greater (pH 1 vs pH 3), and food was retained more commonly (7/10 vs 1/9) in the stomach of MPSS-treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

High doses of MPSS cause gastric hemorrhage in dogs. All dogs treated with high doses of MPSS should be treated with mucosal protectants or antacids to prevent gastric hemorrhage. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:977–981)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research