Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Amanda M. Floerchinger x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of protein binding on the pharmacokinetics and distribution from plasma to interstitial fluid (ISF) of cephalexin and cefpodoxime proxetil in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy dogs.

Procedures—In a crossover study design, 25 mg of cephalexin/kg or 9.6 mg of cefpodoxime/kg was administered orally. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.33, 0.66, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hours after treatment. An ultrafiltration device was used in vivo to collect ISF at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hours. Plasma and ISF concentrations were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Plasma protein binding was measured by use of a microcentrifugation technique.

Results—Mean plasma protein binding for cefpodoxime and cephalexin was 82.6% and 20.8%, respectively. Mean ± SD values for cephalexin in plasma were determined for peak plasma concentration (Cmax, 31.5 ± 11.5 μg/mL), area under the time-concentration curve (AUC, 155.6 ± 29.5 μg•h/mL), and terminal half-life (T½, 4.7 ± 1.2 hours); corresponding values in ISF were 16.3 ± 5.8 μg/mL, 878 ± 21.0 μg•h/mL, and 3.2 ± 0.6 hours, respectively. Mean ± SD values for cefpodoxime in plasma were 33.0 ± 6.9 μg/mL (Cmax), 282.8 ± 44.0 μg•h/mL (AUC), and 5.7 ± 0.9 hours (T1/2); corresponding values in ISF were 4.3 ± 2.0 μg/mL, 575 ± 174 μg•h/mL, and 10.4 ± 3.3 hours, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tissue concentration of protein-unbound cefpodoxime was similar to that of the protein-unbound plasma concentration. Cefpodoxime remained in tissues longer than did cephalexin.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—50 overweight cats.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs.

Design—Prospective clinical study

Animals—50 overweight dogs.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine what perceived factors prevent small animal general practitioners from discussing pet nutrition with clients during healthy and sick pet appointments.

SAMPLE

403 veterinarians in small animal general practice.

PROCEDURES

An online survey was used to gather veterinarians’ opinions on perceived barriers, knowledge levels, and confidence regarding pet nutrition discussions.

RESULTS

Reported barriers to discussing nutrition during healthy pet appointments included client resistance to changing brand (149/359), time constraints (146/359), misinformation online (138/359), and difficulty keeping up with products (132/359). Reported barriers to discussing nutrition during sick pet appointments included client cost concerns (101/349), pet not accepting new food (99/349), and time constraints (83/349). Veterinarians reported discussing nutrition less during healthy pet appointments, compared to sick pet appointments, and were significantly less confident with their knowledge regarding nontherapeutic food, compared to therapeutic food. Veterinarians also reported that they perceived conversations about therapeutic foods to be more positive than conversations about nontherapeutic foods, and veterinarians with more years in practice more commonly reported that there was nothing that would dissuade them from discussing nutrition. Veterinarians who reported barriers to discussing nutrition described a need for resources and reliable information for health-care teams and clients.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results demonstrated a substantial gap between veterinarians’ assertion that nutrition conversations are indicated and the frequency with which they discuss nutrition during appointments. Veterinarians reported that they felt their nutrition conversations were frequently positive; therefore, it is important to overcome barriers to engage with clients about pet nutrition.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Evaluate whether general practitioners’ formal small animal (canine and feline) nutrition instruction in veterinary school and the amount and type of continuing education engagement affect perceived self-reported confidence and frequency in discussing nutrition with clients.

SAMPLE

403 small animal veterinarians who responded to an online survey distributed through the American Animal Hospital Association.

PROCEDURES

Veterinarians were surveyed regarding perceived amount of formal instruction received in veterinary school, interest, time committed to self-education, and confidence in both self and staff knowledge in small animal nutrition.

RESULTS

Of those veterinarians who responded to the survey, 57.1% (201/352) reported they received “none” or “very little” formal instruction in small animal nutrition, while 151 of 352 answered “some” or “a significant amount.” Veterinarians with more formal instruction and veterinarians who reported spending more time in self-education had increased confidence in their own nutritional knowledge (P < .01) and that of their staff (P < .01).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Veterinarians with self-reported significant formal instruction and veterinarians with higher continuing education engagement were more confident in their knowledge and their staff’s knowledge regarding therapeutic and nontherapeutic small animal nutrition. Therefore, it is important for the profession to address veterinary nutrition education gaps in order to increase the veterinary healthcare team’s engagement in nutritional discussions with their clients for both healthy and sick pets.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association