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  • Author or Editor: Allison L. Zwingenberger x
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Objective—To compare hepatic, pancreatic, and gastric perfusion on dynamic computed tomography (CT) scans of clinically normal dogs with those of dogs with portal vascular anomalies.

Sample Population—Dynamic computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 clinically normal dogs and 21 dogs with portal vascular anomalies.

Procedures—Retrospective analysis of dynamic CT scans. Hepatic arterial perfusion, hepatic portal perfusion, total hepatic perfusion, hepatic perfusion index, gastric perfusion, and pancreatic perfusion were calculated from time attenuation curves.

Results—Mean ± hepatic arterial perfusion was significantly higher in affected dogs (0.57 ± 0.27 mL/min•mL−1) than in clinically normal dogs (0.23 ± 0.11 mL/min•mL−1), and hepatic portal perfusion was significantly lower in affected dogs (0.52 ± 0.47 mL/min•mL−1) than in clinically normal dogs (1.08 ± 0.45 mL/min•mL−1). This was reflected in the hepatic perfusion index, which was significantly higher in affected dogs (0.59 ± 0.34), compared with clinically normal dogs (0.19 ± 0.07). Gastric perfusion was significantly higher in dogs with portal vascular anomalies (0.72 ± 0.44 mL/min•mL−1) than in clinically normal dogs (0.41 ± 0.21 mL/min•mL−1), but total hepatic perfusion and pancreatic perfusion were not significantly different. Among subgroups, dogs with congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts and dogs with arterioportal fistulae had higher hepatic arterial perfusion than did clinically normal dogs. Dogs with congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts also had an increase in gastric perfusion and hepatic perfusion index.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hepatic perfusion variables measured on CT scans revealed differences in hemodynamics between clinically normal dogs and those with portal vascular anomalies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images using spontaneous ventilation (SV) and positive-pressure breath-hold (PPBH) techniques in order to demonstrate the feasibility of PPBH PET/CT to decrease respiration-induced artifacts.


5 healthy female mixed-breed dogs.


2-([18F]fluoro)-2-deoxy-D-glucose (was administered to each anesthetized dog. An SV PET/CT scan was performed from the head to the femur using 8 bed positions (3 min/bed) followed by a PPBH scan centered over the diaphragm with a single bed position (1.5 min/bed). PET image quality, the misalignment of organs between PET and CT images, and standardized uptake values (SUVs) of liver adjacent to diaphragm were compared between SV and PPBH.


Overall image quality and conspicuity of anatomic structures were superior in PPBH than in SV PET images. PPBH induced significantly less misalignment of the liver and diaphragm in all planes compared to SV. For the gall bladder, PPBH showed significantly less misalignment than SV only in the transverse plane. The maximum SUV in all of the liver areas was significantly higher with PPBH compared to SV. PPBH exhibited significantly higher mean SUV in the liver adjacent to the left diaphragmatic dome and left lateral border and higher minimum SUV only in the liver adjacent to the left diaphragmatic dome.


PPBH was demonstrated to be a feasible PET/CT protocol with higher PET image quality, less organ misalignment on fused PET/CT, and more accurate SUVs of the liver compared to SV PET/CT in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To characterize the extent and location of atelectasis in healthy anesthetized dogs positioned in lateral recumbency and to determine whether repositioning dogs in sternal recumbency would resolve atelectasis.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent a CT examination twice with a 2-week interval between examinations. Once anesthetized, each dog was positioned in sternal recumbency, and a breath-hold helical transverse thoracic CT scan was acquired. The dog was then positioned in lateral recumbency for 30 minutes, and images were obtained at 5 preselected sites at 3, 8, 13, 20, and 30 minutes after repositioning (phase 1). Then, the dog was repositioned in sternal recumbency, and CT images were obtained at the 5 preselected sites at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after repositioning (phase 2). The protocol for the second examination was the same as the first except the dog was positioned in the opposite lateral recumbency during phase 1. The attenuation and cross-sectional area of the lung lobes at the preselected sites were measured and compared over time.

RESULTS Lateral recumbency did not cause atelectasis in any of the dogs. Patchy areas of abnormally increased attenuation were infrequently detected in the left cranial lung lobe when dogs were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and those areas failed to resolve when dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent of lung attenuation changes was minimal in healthy anesthetized Beagles positioned in lateral recumbency and should not preclude CT examination.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.

ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females).

PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.

RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research