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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine in little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) infected with Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

ANIMALS

123 bats from a P destructans–infected hibernation site in Virginia.

PROCEDURES

3 bats were euthanized and necropsied to confirm the presence of P destructans within the population. The remaining 120 bats were systematically assigned to 6 groups (20 bats/group). Bats in each of 3 groups received 6, 20, or 60 mg of terbinafine/kg, SC, once daily for 10 days. Bats in another group received 200 mg of terbinafine/kg, SC, once daily for 5 days. Bats in 1 group received the terbinafine vehicle solution (0.1 mL/kg, SC, once daily for 10 days). Bats in the remaining group did not receive any treatment. Following the treatment period (days 1 through 10), bats were housed in a hibernation chamber and monitored daily until euthanasia on day 42, 75, or 109. Tissue specimens were collected from all bats as soon as possible after death or euthanasia to determine terbinafine concentration. Within each group and tissue type, terbinafine concentration data were pooled, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods.

RESULTS

Adverse neurologic effects and a high mortality rate before day 10 were observed in bats that received the highest terbinafine dose (200 mg/kg) but not those that received lower doses. Presumed therapeutic terbinafine concentrations (≥ 2 μg/g) were maintained in skin and wing for at least 30 and 6 days in bats that received the 60 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively, but were not achieved in most bats that received the 6 mg/kg dose. Tissue terminal half-life ranged from 14 to 22 days. Terbinafine concentration in hair was positively correlated with that in skin and wing.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated terbinafine doses > 6 but < 200 mg/kg should be further evaluated for the treatment of P destructans–infected bats. Collection of serial hair specimens may represent a noninvasive method for monitoring terbinafine concentration in treated bats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To document the number of human contacts with bait containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, to evaluate factors that might affect human contact with bait-vaccine units, and to summarize adverse reactions in people after contact with vaccine.

Design

Retrospective 4-year survey of directors of 6 oral rabies vaccination programs.

Sample Population

Human residents in areas of vaccination programs.

Procedure

Data were collected from report forms and telephone conversations with directors of oral rabies vaccination programs in Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Texas, and New York. Data collected included information regarding human contact with bait and vaccine, sex and age of person involved in contact, human population density, bait density, type of labeling used on bait, and other factors.

Results

Human contact with bait was more likely in areas where bait had white labels (vs lettering in black ink) and in areas with high human population densities. Directors of all programs reported that human contact with bait-vaccine units was minimal. Adverse reactions in exposed people were not reported. On the basis of these findings, concerns about V-RG vaccine posing a substantial public health risk remain unfounded.

Clinical Implications

Directors of oral rabies vaccination programs should systematically collect information about exposures and potential factors affecting exposure of people to bait-vaccine units. People with substantial exposure to V-RG vaccine should be evaluated for immune status and any resulting symptoms should be documented and monitored. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1413-1417)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the use of bait containing rabies vaccine to create a barrier of rabies-vaccinated raccoons in Massachusetts and to determine the effectiveness of various bait distribution strategies in halting the spread of rabies.

Design

Prospective study.

Sample Population

Free-ranging raccoons.

Procedure

Baits were distributed twice yearly in a 207-km2 (80-mi2) area in the vicinity of the Cape Cod Canal. Bait density and distribution strategy varied among 3 treatment areas. Raccoons were caught in live traps after bait distribution and anesthetized; blood samples were obtained to measure serum antibody titers to rabies virus. Vaccination rates were determined by the percentage of captured raccoons with antibody titers to rabies virus ≥ 1:5. In addition, raccoons with clinical signs of illness inside the vaccination zone and adjacent areas were euthanatized and submitted for rabies testing.

Results

The percentage of vaccinated raccoons differed significantly among the following 3 areas with various bait densities: high-density area with uniform bait distribution (103 baits/km2 [267 baits/mi2]) = 37%; low-density area with additional targeted bait distribution (93 baits/km2 [240 baits/mi2]) = 67%; and, high-density area with additional targeted bait distribution (135 baits/km2 [350 baits/mi2]) = 77%. Nineteen animals with rabies (15 raccoons, 3 skunks, 1 cat) were reported in the area just outside of the vaccination zone, but only 1 raccoon with rabies was reported from inside the vaccination zone.

Clinical Implications

In this suburban study area, an approximate vaccination rate of 63% was sufficient to halt the spread of rabies in free-ranging raccoons. Compared with uniform bait distribution, targeting raccoon habitats increased vaccination rates. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1407-1412)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association