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To describe daily changes in serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, in dogs with septic peritonitis and to determine whether relationships exist among serum concentrations of HA and biomarkers of inflammation and patient fluid status.


8 client-owned dogs.


Serum samples that had been collected for a previous study and stored at −80°C were used. Blood samples were collected at admission and daily thereafter during hospitalization and were analyzed for concentrations of HA and interleukins 6, 8, and 10. Patient data including acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation score, type and amount of fluids administered daily, and daily CBC and lactate concentration results were recorded. To determine the significant predictors of HA concentration, a general linear mixed model for repeated measures was developed.


All dogs survived to discharge. Concentrations of HA ranged from 18 to 1,050 ng/mL (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 49 to 119 ng/mL) throughout hospitalization. Interleukin-6 concentration was a significant predictor of HA concentration as was total administered daily fluid volume when accounting for interleukin-6 concentration. When fluid volume was analyzed independent of inflammatory status, fluid volume was not a significant predictor. Concentrations of HA did not significantly change over time but tended to increase on day 2 or 3 of hospitalization.


Results supported the theory that inflammation is associated with endothelial glycocalyx degradation. Dogs recovering from septic peritonitis may become more susceptible to further endothelial glycocalyx damage as increasing fluid volumes are administered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify the normal gastric acid secretion profile in dogs and determine the degree of gastric acid suppression associated with 4 gastric acid suppressants.

Animals—12 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Intragastric pH was measured continuously for 24-hour periods with a digital recording system placed via a gastrostomy tube. Baseline measurements were obtained when food was withheld and when dogs were fed a standard diet. Dogs were then treated with ranitidine (2 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), pantoprazole (1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h), omeprazole (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), or saline solution for 7 days; intragastric pH was recorded on days 0, 2, and 6. Subsequently, the effects of administering famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h; 6 dogs) and omeprazole as a suspension (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; 6 dogs) were evaluated. Median 24-hour intragastric pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3, and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were determined.

Results—Median pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3, and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were all significantly higher when food was withheld than when dogs were fed. Famotidine, pantoprazole, and omeprazole significantly suppressed gastric acid secretion, compared with saline solution, as determined on the basis of median 24-hour pH and percentages of time pH was ≥ 3 or ≥ 4. However, ranitidine did not. Omeprazole suspension suppressed gastric acid secretion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in healthy dogs, famotidine, pantoprazole, and omeprazole significantly suppress gastric acid secretion. Twice daily administration of a suspension of omeprazole, was the only regimen tested that approached the potential therapeutic efficacy for acidrelated disease when assessed by criteria used for human patients. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:425–431)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from the tracheostomy tube of an 18-month-old castrated male Golden Retriever in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Ontario Veterinary College. This prompted an investigation of MRSA colonization in other animals in the ICU.

Clinical Findings—On day 1 of the investigation, MRSA was isolated from nasal swabs obtained from 2 of 10 animals (2/7 dogs and 0/3 cats), including the index case. Subsequently, MRSA was isolated from 3 of 12 animals on day 9; 3 of 9 animals on day 13; and none of 14, 5, and 6 animals on day 20, 27, and 78, respectively. Overall, MRSA was isolated from 6 of 26 (23%) animals during the outbreak period (4/22 dogs and 2/4 cats). The apparent incidence of MRSA acquisition in the ICU from days 1 through 13 was 20% (5/25 animals). No clinical signs of MRSA infections developed. All isolates were indistinguishable from one another.

Treatment and Outcome—Infection-control measures including active surveillance of all animals in the ICU, barrier precautions, and hand hygiene were used to control the apparent outbreak.

Clinical Relevance—Methicillin-resistant S aureus is an emerging problem in veterinary medicine. Intensive care units may be at particular risk for periodic outbreaks of colonization and disease. The outbreak of this report highlights the potential for clinically inapparent transmission of MRSA within a facility; infection-control measures that might facilitate MRSA eradication should be considered in ICU settings.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare electroencephalography (EEG) artifact associated with use of the subdermal wire electrode (SWE), gold cup electrode (GCE), and subdermal needle electrode (SNE) over an 8-hour period in sedated and awake dogs.

Animals—6 healthy dogs.

Procedures—8 EEG channels were recorded during 20-minute video-EEG recording sessions (intermittently at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours) with and without chlorpromazine sedation. Nonphysiologic artifacts were identified. Duration of artifact was summed for each channel. Number of unaffected channels (NUC) was determined.

Results—NUC was significantly affected by electrode type and sedation over time; median for SWE (2.80 channels; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 5.70 channels) was significantly different from medians for GCE (7.87 channels; 95% CI, 7.44 to 7.94 channels) and SNE (7.60 channels; 95% CI, 6.61 to 7.89 channels). After 4 hours, NUC decreased in awake dogs, regardless of electrode type. In awake dogs, duration of artifact differed significantly between SWE and GCE or SNE; medians at 8 hours were 61.55 seconds (95% CI, 21.81 to 173.65 seconds), 1.33 seconds (95% CI, 0.47 to 3.75 seconds), and 21.01 seconds (95% CI, 6.85 to 64.42 seconds), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SWE had a significant duration of artifact during recording periods > 2 hours, compared with results for the GCE and SNE, in awake dogs. The GCE, SNE, and sedation resulted in significantly more channels unaffected by artifact. For longer recordings, caution should be exercised in selecting EEG electrodes and sedation state, although differences among electrodes may not be clinically relevant.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research