Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Alan J. Ruggles x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

Medical records of 28 horses with impaction of the small colon were reviewed; 20 horses were admitted during the winter months. Diagnosis of small-colon impaction was made in 21 horses by rectal examination, and in 7 horses at exploratory celiotomy. Ten horses were treated medically, and 18 were treated surgically. Horses that were treated surgically were more likely to have abdominal distention than were those that responded to medical treatment (P < 0.025). Signs of greater degree of abdominal pain and higher heart rate were seen in horses treated surgically, but these values were not significantly different from values in medically treated horses. Duration of hospitalization was less in horses treated medically (P < 0.025). Long-term survival was higher for horses treated medically (P < 0.025). All horses treated medically and 7 of the horses treated surgically were alive at follow-up evaluation, at least 1 year after discharge. Fever and diarrhea were common complications after surgery. Four horses were fecal culture-positive for Salmonella sp after surgery. Early and aggressive medical management of horses with impaction of the small colon is recommended.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

In 6 anesthetized ponies, 3 segments of jejunum and 3 segments of small colon were isolated from the peritoneal cavity in plastic bags filled with Hanks' balanced salt solution. One jejunal and 1 small colon segment were subjected to venous strangulation obstruction for 3 hours (vso-3), venous strangulation obstruction for 6 hours (vso-6), or a 6-hour sham procedure to control for changes induced by isolation in a plastic bag. Additional segments of jejunum and colon that were not placed in bags served as controls for histologic examination and collagenase measurements. Samples of fluid surrounding the intestine were obtained for chemical analyses, nucleated cell count, aerobic and anaerobic bacteriologic culture, and measurement of collagenase activity. Full-thickness tissue samples were obtained for histologic examination and measurement of collagenase content.

Bacteria did not cross the intestinal wall after 3 and 6 hours of vso, despite severe mucosal lesions in these segments. At 6 hours, Po2 was significantly less and Pco2 was significantly (P<0.05) greater in the fluid surrounding the vso-6 jejunal segments, compared with the sham jejunal segments. The pH was significantly (P<0.05) less in fluid surrounding vso-6 small colon segments, compared with the sham colon segments at 6 hours. For jejunum and small colon, phosphate and lactate concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) greater in vso-6 fluid than in the corresponding sham fluids at 6 hours. Fibrin formed around all vso segments, although fibrinogen was not detected in the surrounding fluid, indicating possible rapid conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Fluid collagenase activity increased significantly (P<0.05) in all segments over 6 hours. The preparation used in this study was successful in measuring local changes on the serosal surface of intestine subjected to vso and in isolating segments under study in a sterile environment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare the biochemical, histochemical, and immunohistochemical profiles of articular cartilage from horses with naturally acquired distal tibial osteochondrosis (OC) with cartilage from a similar location in clinically normal horses.

Animals

9 affected horses (group 1, 16 OC lesions) and 4 control horses (group 2, 8 normal osteochondral specimens).

Procedure

OC specimens were collected during arthroscopic removal of the fragment, and control specimens were collected by aseptic osteotomy. Uronic acid, total protein, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and keratan sulfate (KS) contents were determined. Histomorphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed on specimens after snap freezing at −80 C and cryosectioning. Monoclonal antibodies (MAB) 3B3 and 5D4 were applied for location of epitopes of CS and KS, respectively.

Results

OC lesions had significantly lower quantity of uronic acid, total GAG, and CS, compared with normal cartilage. OC cartilage had significantly less intense staining with toluidine blue, along with irregular cellularity and tidemark characteristics, compared with normal cartilage. Monoclonal antibodies 3B3 and 5D4 stained OC cartilage, whereas MAB 5D4 did not stain control cartilage. Additionally, MAB 3B3 and 5D4 stained the fibrous tissue that was found firmly attached to the OC lesion located between the parent distal portion of the tibia and OC fragment.

Conclusion

OC cartilage lesions of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia in horses are biochemically, histochemically, and immunohistochemically distinct from normal cartilage from the same location. Results may reflect the inability of the chondrocyte of the developing joint to alter matrix components that would allow proper maturation and differentiation into bone. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:89–98)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether fracture fragment dimensions, suspensory ligament damage, and racing status at the time of injury were associated with outcome in Standardbred horses with apical fracture of the proximal sesamoid bone.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

43 Standardbred racehorses.

Procedure

Medical records, racing records, and radiographs were reviewed, and ultrasonographic findings were scored. Measurements of the fractured portion of the proximal sesamoid bone were made.

Results

Seventy-four percent (32/43) of horses were pacers, and 26% (11/43) were trotters. Statistical differences between trotters and pacers regarding ability to start, number of starts, or amount of money earned after injury were not detected. Females earned significantly more money per start after injury than males. Eighty-six percent (37/43) of fractures involved hind limbs and 14% (6/43) involved forelimbs. Horses with forelimb injuries earned less money per start. Severity of suspensory ligament damage did not affect postinjury racing performance. A higher proportion of horses that had raced before injury returned to racing after surgery than horses that had not raced before injury, although a significant difference between these groups was not detected. Eighty-eight percent of horses that raced before injury raced after injury. Fifty-six percent of horses that did not race before injury raced after injury. Fracture fragment dimensions did not affect outcome.

Clinical Implications

Dimensions of the apical fracture fragment of the proximal sesamoid bone in Standardbred horses and degree of suspensory ligament damage did not affect outcome. Prognosis for return to racing soundness is good in horses that had raced before injury and fair in horses that had not raced before injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1653-1656)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features of horses with a slab fracture of the central or third tarsal bone and to report outcome of horses in which treatment did not include surgery.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—25 horses (14 Standardbreds, 6 Thoroughbreds, 5 Quarter Horses).

Procedure—Medical records of horses with a slab fracture of the central (n = 9) or third (16) tarsal bone were reviewed. Only horses for which treatment consisted of confinement to a stall were included in this study. Clinical features and radiographic findings were recorded and summarized. Outcome was determined for racing breeds by obtaining official lifetime race results. Outcome for Quarter Horses was determined by phone survey of the owners.

Results—16 (64%) horses had a successful outcome. Ten of 14 (71%) Standardbreds and 2 of 6 Thoroughbreds returned to racing and started at least 5 races after injury. Four of 5 Quarter Horses for which follow-up information was available successfully returned to their previous activity. Sex, age, limb affected, or gait was not associated with final outcome. Percentage of racehorses with central tarsal bone fractures that had a successful outcome (2/7) was significantly less than percentage with third tarsal bone fractures that did (10/13).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that enforced rest without surgical fixation can be an effective therapeutic option for horses with a slab fracture of the central or third tarsal bone, even if athletic function is expected. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1949–1954)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association