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Objective—To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection.

Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.

Animals—1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006.

Procedures—Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results—2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs < 0.5 years old had higher odds of Toxocara and Ancylostoma parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate reproductive performance and productive longevity of dairy cows treated for left displaced abomasum (LDA) with 1 of 2 surgical techniques (omentopexy vs pyloro-omentopexy).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 87 Holstein cows that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy for LDA during a 5-year period.

PROCEDURES For each cow with LDA, the most recent date of calving, age at time of surgery, and surgical procedure were recorded. Dairy records of cows treated for LDA in the 5-year period were reviewed to determine their reproductive performance. Records available for up to 4 years after the last surgery (ie, when all treated cows had left the herd) were reviewed to determine cull dates and reasons for treated and untreated cows in the herd.

RESULTS Of the 87 cows with LDA, 58 underwent pyloro-omentopexy and 29 underwent omentopexy. Cows in the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ in age. Fifty-six cows completed > 1 subsequent lactation cycle after surgery. The median time that cows with LDA remained in the herd was 566 days (range, 24 to 1,838 days); the times for the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ. For treated and untreated cows, cull rates for reproductive failure or other problems were similar. Four (14%) omentopexy–treated cows and no pyloro-omentopexy–treated cows had a reoccurrence of LDA.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that cows with LDA that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy had similar cull rates and reasons as unaffected herd mates over their productive time in the herd. Between the 2 treatment groups, only the LDA reoccurrence rate differed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To document disposition variables of phenylbutazone and its metabolite, oxyphenbutazone, in camels (Camelus dromedarius) after single IV bolus administration of phenylbutazone, with a view to making recommendation on avoiding violative residues in racing camels.


6 healthy camels (4 males, 2 females), 5 to 7 years old, and weighing from 350 to 450 kg.


Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 45, and 60 minutes and at 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 26, 28, 30, 40, 48, 50, 53, and 60 hours after IV administration of 4.5 mg of phenylbutazone per kg of body weight. Urine was obtained in fractions during the entire blood sample collection period. Serum and urine phenylbutazone concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography; assay sensitivity was 100 ng/ml. Serum oxyphenbutazone concentration was measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; assay sensitivity was 10 ng/ml.


Disposition of phenylbutazone was best described by a two-compartment open model. Mean ± SEM elimination half-life was 13.44 ± 0.44 hours. Total body clearance was 12.63 ± 1.64 mg/kg/h. Renal clearance was between 0.3 and 0.4% of total body clearance. The elimination half-life of oxyphenbutazone was 23.9 ± 2.09 hours.


The elimination half-life and total body clearance of phenylbutazone in camels are intermediate between reported values in horses and cattle. Extrapolation of a dosage regimen from either species to camels is, therefore, not appropriate. Elimination of phenylbutazone in camels is mainly via metabolism. Owing to the long half-life of phenylbutazone and of oxyphenbutazone, and to the zero drug concentration regulation adopted by the racing commissioner in the United Arab Emirates, practicing veterinarians would be advised not to use phenylbutazone in camels for at least 7 days prior to racing. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:636–640)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effect of eyelid manipulation and manual jugular compression on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement in clinically normal dogs.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—30 dogs (57 eyes) without diseases or medications that affect IOP.

Procedures—An applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP during eyelid manipulation or jugular compression. Six manipulations were used in each eye, including minimal eyelid manipulation, maximal dorsoventral extension of the eyelids, lateral eyelid extension, manual compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein, manual compression of both jugular veins, and lateral eyelid extension with manual compression of both jugular veins. Skull type and position of globe in the orbit were recorded.

Results—The 2 manipulations that caused the greatest significant increase in mean IOP were lateral eyelid extension with compression of both jugular veins (difference from baseline IOP, 17.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 19.5 mm Hg) and lateral eyelid extension alone (16.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, 14.6 to 18.4 mm Hg). Dorsoventral eyelid extension (6.42 mm Hg; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.3 mm Hg) and compression of both jugular veins alone (3.0 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.0 mm Hg) significantly increased mean IOP, compared with baseline. Compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein increased mean IOP (0.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, −1.6 to 2.2 mm Hg) from baseline, but not significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Traction on the eyelids or pressure on both jugular veins can significantly increase IOP values as measured by use of applanation tonometry in clinically normal dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association