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  • Author or Editor: Adesola Odunayo x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma.

ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration.

RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of incompatible crossmatch results in dogs without a history of prior RBC transfusion and to evaluate changes in Hct following RBC administration for transfusion-naïve dogs that did and did not have crossmatching performed.

DESIGN Retrospective study.

ANIMALS 169 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, pretransfusion Hct or PCV, and crossmatching results where applicable. Dogs that underwent major crossmatching (n = 149) as part of pretransfusion screening were each crossmatched with 3 potential donors. Donor blood was obtained from a commercial source and tested negative for dog erythrocyte antigens (DEAs) 1.1, 1.2, and 7 but positive for DEA 4. Mean change in Hct after transfusion was compared between crossmatch-tested dogs (57/91 that subsequently underwent RBC transfusion) and 20 other dogs that underwent RBC transfusion without prior crossmatching by statistical methods.

RESULTS 25 of 149 (17%) dogs evaluated by crossmatching were incompatible with 1 or 2 of the 3 potential donors. All 149 dogs were compatible with ≥ 1 potential donor. Mean ± SD change in Hct after transfusion was significantly higher in dogs that had crossmatching performed (12.5 ± 8.6%) than in dogs that did not undergo crossmatching (9.0 ± 4.3%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated immunologic incompatibility can exist between first-time transfusion recipients and potential blood donor dogs. The clinical importance of these findings could not be evaluated, but considering the potential for immediate or delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions or shortened RBC life span, the authors suggest veterinarians consider crossmatching all dogs prior to transfusion when possible.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Complications of feeding tube placement are uncommon, but life-threatening pneumothorax has been reported in human and veterinary patients during feeding tube placement. This article describes the development of pneumothorax and the outcome associated with misplacement of nasogastric (NG) tubes in the tracheobronchial tree in 13 dogs.

ANIMALS

13 dogs being treated for various medical conditions that had NG tubes placed in 4 hospitals.

PROCEDURES

A review was carried out of the medical records of 13 dogs that developed pneumothorax after misplacement of NG tubes between 2017 and 2022.

RESULTS

14 dogs out of 4,777 (0.3%) developed pneumothorax as an adverse effect of NG tube misplacement in the tracheobronchial tree. One dog was excluded due to incomplete medical records. The feeding tube size ranged from 5F to 10F, and the most common tubes utilized were polyurethane tubes with flushing stylets. Nine out of 13 dogs developed evidence of respiratory compromise after the NG tube was placed. Eleven dogs required thoracocentesis, and 5 dogs had thoracostomy tubes placed. Five dogs suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after developing pneumothorax, with 3 of 5 undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Two out of 3 dogs that underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation were discharged from the hospital. Five of 13 dogs were successfully discharged from the hospital, while 5 dogs died or were euthanized because of the pneumothorax.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Pneumothorax is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of NG tube placement in dogs and may lead to death if not immediately addressed. Practitioners should be aware of this complication and be ready to perform thoracocentesis quickly if appropriate.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the accuracy of pet owners, veterinary technicians, house officers (interns and residents), and attending clinicians at estimating dog weights in a veterinary emergency room.

ANIMALS

272 dogs weighing over 2 kg presenting to the emergency room between June 1 and July 29, 2022.

METHODS

Pet owners, veterinary technicians, house officers, and attending clinicians recorded the dogs’ weight estimations on individual data collection cards. Pet owners were also asked to estimate their dogs’ weight during the triage period. The dogs’ actual weights were then obtained and recorded.

RESULTS

Pet owners were more accurate than veterinary professionals at providing weight estimates for dogs. Weight estimates were accurate to within 10% of the dogs’ actual weights for 67.9% (181/267) of pet owners. Forty-one percent (112/270) of attending clinicians, 35.3% (95/269) of house officers, and 35.4% (96/271) of veterinary technicians’ weight estimates were within 10% of the dog’s actual weight. There was no difference noted in the length of veterinary experience and ability to closely estimate the patient’s weight. Overall, veterinary professionals were more likely to closely estimate the weight of large dogs compared to small dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The pet owner is most likely to provide an accurate weight for dogs and questions about the dog’s weight should be directed to the client for situations in which a weight cannot be rapidly obtained.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association