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Abstract

Objective

To describe intratrial differences in hind limb symmetry in healthy dogs at the trot, using non-invasive, computer-assisted, three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis.

Animals

8 clinically normal large-breed adult dogs.

Procedure

Dynamic flexion and extension angles and angular velocities were calculated for the coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joints of dogs at the trot. Temporal and distance variables were computed. Essential Fourier coefficients were used to determine mean flexion and extension curves for all joints and to compare differences in movement between right and left hind limbs. Variances attributable to limb, dog, and trial were determined.

Results

Each joint had a characteristic pattern of flexion and extension movement that was used to compare intratrial symmetry of hind limb gait. Significant differences were not detected in temporal or distance variables between the right and left hind limbs. Significant differences were not noted in essential Fourier coefficients used to characterize coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joint angles and angular velocities, with the exception of the cosine-0 coefficient for coxofemoral angular velocity. Variation in joint angle and angular velocity measurements were attributable to individual dog and trial. Variation attributable to limb was negligible.

Conclusions

Intratrial evaluation of right-left hind limb symmetry, using kinematic gait analysis, indicated objectively that hind limb movement is symmetrical at the trot in healthy large-breed dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Documentation of hind limb symmetry at the trot will help provide a basis for direct comparison of both hind limbs in future studies evaluating gait and treatment of dogs with musculoskeletal disease. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:680-685)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A noninvasive computer-assisted kinematic gait analysis was used to describe flexion and extension movements of 6 joints in Greyhounds at a trot. Distinct patterns of movements were described for each joint studied. The coxofemoral and carpal joints were characterized by a single peak of maximal extension. The femorotibial, tarsal, scapulohumeral, and cubital joints had 2 peaks of maximal extension, with 1 peak preceding stance phase and a second peak within stance phase. A two-factor repeated-measures anova was used to determine the variance in measurement of joint angles in degrees that was attributable to trial repetitions and to differences between dogs. The coxofemoral, femorotibial, tarsal, scapulohumeral, and cubital joints had a mean variance attributable to trial repetition of 6.6 (range, 1.7 to 12.9), and a mean variance attributable to differences between dogs of 5.1 (range, 0.9 to 9.2). The carpus had more variance, with a mean variance attributable to trial repetition of 16.3 (range, 13.3 to 20.5), and that attributable to differences between dogs of 31.8 (range, 20.5 to 46.7). Kinematic gait analysis provided a reliable description of flexion and extension movements in Greyhounds with minimal variance attributable to trial repetitions and to differences between dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research