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SUMMARY

Twenty-four horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups. All horses underwent a ventral midline celiotomy, and the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Group-1 horses served as sham-operated controls, group-2 horses underwent 6 hours of colonic ischemia, and group-3 horses were subjected to 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. Baseline blood samples were collected, then low-flow colonic ischemia was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. All horses were monitored for 6 hours. Citrated systemic venous ( sv ) blood samples were collected from the main pulmonary artery, and colonic venous (cv) samples were collected from the colonic vein draining the ventral colon. Samples were collected at 0, and 2, 3, 3.25, 4, and 6 hours for determination of one-stage prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin III activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Data were analyzed statistically, using two-way anova for repeated measures, and post-hoc comparisons were made by use of Student Newman Keul's test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. There were significant decreases in all hemostatic variables by 2 hours in sv and cv samples from horses of all 3 groups, but there were no differences among the 3 groups for any of these variables. These hemostatic alterations could have been secondary to a hypercoagulable state or to fluid therapy-induced hemodilution. Colonic ischemia-reperfusion was not the cause of these alterations because these alterations also were observed in the sham-operated control horses. Significant temporal alterations existed even after accounting for the hemodilution. The most plausible explanation for these alterations is that hemostatic activation was incited by the celiotomy and manipulation of the colon during exteriorization and instrumentation. Comparison of paired sv and cv samples for each hemostatic variable revealed significant differences for the absolute values of one-stage prothrombin time and fibrinogen concentration, but not for activated partial thromboplastin time or antithrombin III activity. This indicates that monitoring sv hemostatic variables does not necessarily provide an accurate assessment of hemostatic function in regional vascular beds. Largecolon ischemia with or without reperfusion did not alter hemostatic function.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Twenty-four horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Horses were anesthetized, subjected to a ventral midline celiotomy, and the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Group-1 horses served as sham-operated controls. Group-2 horses were subjected to 6 hours of low-flow colonic arterial ischemia, and group-3 horses were subjected to 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. Baseline (bl) samples were collected, then low-flow ischemia was induced by reducing ventral colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of bl. All horses were monitored for 6 hours after bl data were collected. blood samples were collected from the colonic vein and main pulmonary artery (systemic venous [sv]) for measurement of plasma endotoxin, 6-keto prostaglandin F (6-kPG), thromboxane B2 (txb 2), and prostaglandin E2 (pge 2) concentrations. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 activities were measured in colonic venous (cv) serum samples. Data were analyzed, using two-way anova, and post-hoc comparisons were made, using Dunnett's and Tu- key's tests. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Endotoxin was not detected in CV or sv plasma at any time. There was no detectable tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-6 activity in CV samples at any time. There were no differences at bl among groups for CV or sv 6-kPG, pge 2, or txb 2 concentrations, nor were there any changes across time in group-1 horses. Colonic venous 6-kPG concentration increased during ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3; CV 6-kPG concentration peaked at 3 hours in group-3 horses, then decreased during reperfusion, but remained increased through 6 hours in group-2 horses. Systemic venous 6-kPG concentration increased during reperfusion in group-3 horses, but there were no changes in group- 2 horses. Colonic venous pge 2 concentration increased during ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3, and remained increased for the first hour of reperfusion in group-3 horses and for the 6-hour duration of ischemia in group-2 horses. There were no temporal alterations in sv pge 2 concentration. There was no difference in CV or sv ixb2 concentration among or within groups across time; however, there was a trend (P = 0.075) toward greater CV txb 2 concentration at 3.25 hours, compared with bl, in group-3 horses. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly lower in sv, compared with CV plasma. Prostaglandin E2 and 6-kPG concentrations were approximately 3 to 8 and 5 to 10 times greater, respectively, in CV than in sv plasma. The increased concentrations of 6-kPG and pge 2 in CV plasma were likely attributable to their accumulation secondary to colonic ischemia. The increased values of these vasodilator eicosanoids may have a role in the reactive hyperemia observed during reperfusion. The increased 6-kPG concentration in sv plasma may represent spillover from the colonic vasculature, but more likely reflects systemic production.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Histomorphologic/morphometric evaluation, leukocyte scintigraphy, and myeloperoxidase activity were used to determine whether neutrophils accumulate in the large colon of horses during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. Twenty-four adult horses were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group 1, sham-operated (n = 6); group 2, 6 hours of ischemia (n = 9); and group 3, 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion (n = 9). Low-flow ischemia of the large colon was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. Radiolabeled (99mTc) autogenous neutrophils were injected at 175 minutes, which corresponded to 5 minutes prior to reperfusion in group-3 horses. Full-thickness biopsy specimens of the left ventral colon were collected at baseline and at 30-minute intervals for 6 hours; a portion of the biopsy specimen was placed in formalin for histologic examination, and the remainder was used to measure mucosal radioactivity and myeloperoxidase activity. There were no differences in baseline mucosal neutrophil index, mucosal neutrophil numbers, submucosal venular neutrophil numbers, mucosal radioactivity, or mucosal myeloperoxidase activity among groups, or over time in group-1 horses. Neutrophils accumulated in the colonic mucosa during ischemia and further increased at reperfusion, as indicated by neutrophil index (morphology) and mucosal neutrophil numbers (morphometry); mucosal neutrophil index was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 horses during reperfusion than at the corresponding periods of ischemia in group-2 horses. Neutrophil numbers were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in submucosal venules at 10 minutes of reperfusion in group-3 horses and were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 than in group-2 horses during the interval from 3 to 6 hours. Mucosal radioactivity significantly (P < 0.05) increased at reperfusion in group-3 horses; there was a trend (P = 0.076) toward greater mucosal radioactivity in group-3, compared with group-2 horses, throughout the 3- to 6-hour interval. There were no differences in mucosal myeloperoxidase activity among or within any of the 3 groups over time.

Neutrophils accumulated in the large colon of horses during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. Neutrophil infiltration was detected by histologic examination and leukocyte scintigraphy, but not by measurement of myeloperoxidase activity. The accumulation of neutrophils during ischemia and the further neutrophil infiltration during reperfusion indicate that neutrophils may contribute to reperfusion injury of the large colon.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of low-flow ischemia and reperfusion of the large colon on mucosal architecture were determined in horses. Twenty-four adult horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated (n = 6), 6 hours of ischemia (n = 9), and 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion (n = 9). Low-flow ischemia was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline values. Systemic hemodynamic and metabolic variables were maintained constant and in a normal physiologic range. Full-thickness biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventral colon for histomorphologic and morphometric examination at baseline and at 30-minute intervals for 6 hours; additional biopsy specimens were collected at 185, 190, and 195 minutes (corresponding to 5-, 10-, and 15-minute periods of reperfusion in group-3 horses). There were no differences among groups at baseline or across time in group-1 horses for any of the histopathologic variables. There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in percentage of surface mucosal disruption, estimated and measured percentage depth of mucosal loss, mucosal hemorrhage, mucosal edema, and cellular debris index during 0 hour to 3 hours, compared with baseline, and from 3 hours to 6 hours, compared with 3 hours in horses of groups 2 and 3. Estimated percentage depth of mucosal loss and cellular debris index were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 horses, compared with group-2 horses during the interval from 3 to 6 hours. There were trends toward greater percentage of surface mucosal disruption and mucosal edema during the early phase of reperfusion (3 to 4 hours) and greater mucosal hemorrhage, measured percentage depth of mucosal loss, and mucosal interstitial-to-crypt ratio during the late phase (4 to 6 hours) of reperfusion in group-3 horses vs group-2 horses. Reestablishment of colonic arterial blood flow after low-flow ischemia caused greater mucosal injury than did a comparable period of continued ischemia. Thus, reperfusion injury was detected in the large colon of horses after low-flow arterial ischemia. The serial mucosal alterations that developed in the colon were comparable in horses of groups 2 and 3; however, reperfusion exacerbated colonic mucosal injury.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Xylazine (0.05 mg/kg of body weight diluted to a 5-ml volume, using 0.9% NaCl) or 5 ml of 0.9% NaCl was administered epidurally into the first caudal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2) in 8 cows (mean ± sd body weight, 583 ± 150 kg). Cows were observed for responses to deep needle pricking of the caudal dermatomes (S3 to Co), sedation, and ataxia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, rate of ruminal contractions, coccygeal arterial blood pressure, pHa, blood gas tension (Pa o 2 , Pa co 2 ), base excess, total solids concentration, and pcv were determined before and after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered xylazine induced sedation and selective (S3 to Co) analgesia for at least 2 hours. Mild ataxia of hind limbs was observed in 6 cows, but all cows remained standing. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rate of ruminal contractions, arterial blood pressure, Pa o 2 , pcv, and total solids concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, and Pa co 2 , base excess, and bicarbonate concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered 0.9% NaCl did not alter sensory perception to needle pricking and did not affect any of the physiologic variables determined. Although epidural administration of xylazine induced analgesia and sedation in healthy cows, it should be avoided for epidural analgesia in cattle with heart disease, lung disease, and/or gastrointestinal disease because of its potent cardiopulmonary and ruminal depressant effects.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Atrial premature complexes (apc) were identified in 16 cows over a 2-year period. Fourteen cows had concurrent gastrointestinal disease. Variation in the intensity of the first heart sound and an occasionally irregular heart rhythm were evident during thoracic auscultation. Neither cardiac murmurs nor pulse deficits were detected in any cows, and clinical signs of heart failure were lacking. Three cows had apc immediately prior to or after development of atrial fibrillation.

The heart rate when apc were diagnosed ranged from 48 to 124 beats/min (mean, 77 ± 20 beats/min), and the apc frequency ranged from < 1 to 23/min (mean 9.4 ± 8.0). The P-wave morphologic characteristics in 4 cows with apc was abnormal. The coupling index of the apc varied between 0.44 and 0.95, with a mean of 0.73. Aberrant ventricular activation was usually associated with a short coupling interval (coupling index < 0.60) and was observed in 3 cows.

Ten cows were determined to be hypocalcemic and 4 cows hypokalemic when apc were identified. Atrial ectopic activity could not be detected in 12 cows after resolution of the concurrent gastrointestinal disorder or electrolyte abnormality. Atrial premature complexes may be a functional cardiac disorder in cattle, unrelated to structural heart disease. The potential for apc to progress to sustained atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation should be considered.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate anesthetic effects of 4 drug combinations used for total intravenous anesthesia of horses undergoing surgical removal of an abdominal testis.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—32 healthy cryptorchid horses.

Procedure—Horses were sedated with xylazine and butorphanol and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: induction of anesthesia with ketamine and diazepam and maintenance with bolus administration of ketamine and xylazine (KD/KX); induction and maintenance of anesthesia with bolus administration of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and detomidine (TKD); induction and maintenance of anesthesia with continuous infusion of xylazine, guaifenesin, and ketamine; and induction and maintenance of anesthesia with continuous infusion of guaifenesin and thiopental. Horses that moved 3 consecutive times in response to surgical stimulation or for which surgery time was > 60 minutes were administered an inhalant anesthetic, and data from these horses were excluded from analysis.

Results—Quality of induction was not significantly different among groups. Muscle relaxation and analgesia scores were lowest for horses given KD/KX, but significant differences among groups were not detected. Horses anesthetized with TKD had a significantly greater number of attempts to stand, compared with the other groups, and mean quality of recovery from anesthesia for horses in the TKD group was significantly worse than for the other groups. Anesthesia, surgery, and recovery times were not significantly different among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that all 4 drug combinations can be used to induce short-term anesthesia for abdominal cryptorchidectomy in horses. However, horses receiving TKD had a poorer recovery from anesthesia, often requiring assistance to stand. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:869–873)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of rapid small-volume fluid administration on arterial blood pressure measurements and associated hemodynamic variables in isoflurane-anesthetized euvolemic dogs with or without experimentally induced hypotension.

Design—Prospective, randomized, controlled study.

Animals—13 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Isoflurane-anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to conditions of nonhypotension or hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure, 45 to 50 mm Hg) and treatment with lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) or hetastarch (3 or 10 mL/kg [1.4 or 4.5 mL/lb] dose in a 5-minute period or 3 mL/kg dose in a 1-minute period [4 or 5 dogs/treatment; ≥ 10-day interval between treatments]). Hemodynamic variables were recorded before and for up to 45 minutes after fluid administration.

Results—IV administration of 10 mL/kg doses of LRS or hetastarch in a 5-minute period increased right atrial and pulmonary arterial pressures and cardiac output (CO) when dogs were nonhypotensive or hypotensive, compared with findings before fluid administration; durations of these effects were greater after hetastarch administration. Intravenous administration of 3 mL of hetastarch/kg in a 5-minute period resulted in an increase in CO when dogs were nonhypotensive. Intravenous administration of 3 mL/kg doses of LRS or hetastarch in a 1-minute period increased right atrial pressure and CO when dogs were nonhypotensive or hypotensive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of LRS or hetastarch (3 or 10 mL/kg dose in a 5-minute period or 3 mL/kg dose in a 1-minute period) improved CO in isoflurane-anesthetized euvolemic dogs with or without hypotension. Overall, arterial blood pressure measurements were a poor predictor of the hemodynamic response to fluid administration.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association