Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 71 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jack Snyder x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

Medical records of 245 horses that had been evaluated by use of abdominal radiography between January 1990 and December 1992 were reviewed. One hundred forty-one horses subsequently had a postmortem examination or surgical exploration performed for definitive lesion diagnosis. The signalment, diagnosis, site, and number of enteroliths were obtained from the medical records. Radiographs were evaluated individually by 3 reviewers for the presence of enteroliths, preferred diagnostic view, evidence of large colon tympany, and film quality. Of the 141 cases reviewed, 66.7% (94/141) had confirmed enterolithiasis. Enteroliths were identified in the right dorsal colon of 59 horses, in the transverse colon of 28, in the small colon of 24, and in the ventral colon of 1 (enteroliths were detected in multiple sites in 12 horses). For the 3 reviewers, mean sensitivity was 76.9% and specificity was 94.4%. Mean positive-predictive value was 96.4%, and negative-predictive value was 67.5%. Cases involving only large colon enteroliths were correctly diagnosed 83.2% of the time, compared with 41.6% of the time for cases involving small colon enteroliths. Enteroliths were evident in 54.8% of the horses with radiographic signs of large colon distention. Fifteen horses had enteroliths in the small colon, 4 in the transverse colon, and 4 in the dorsal colon.

Radiographic quality was evaluated and scored as adequate (0), underexposed (−1), overexposed (1), or incomplete. Mean score was −0.5, and there were 21 (14.9%) incomplete studies. For the 75 cases correctly diagnosed via abdominal radiography, there were 14 (18.7%) incomplete studies and a mean score of −0.43. Of the 19 false-negative evaluations, there were 3 (15.8%) incomplete studies and a mean score of −0.69. The most common error leading to the missed diagnoses seemed to be inadequate penetration of the abdomen.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish the route of infusion (IV or intraosseous) that results in the highest concentration of amikacin in the synovial fluid of the tibiotarsal joint and determine the duration of peak concentrations.

Animals—21 horses.

Procedure—Regional perfusion of a limb on 15 horses was performed. Amikacin sulfate was infused into the saphenous vein or via intraosseous infusion into the distal portion of the tibia (1 g in 56 ml of lactated Ringer's solution) or proximal portion of the metatarsus (1 g of amikacin in 26 ml of lactated Ringer's solution). Amikacin concentrations were measured in sequential samples from tibiotarsal joint synovial fluid and serum. Samples were obtained immediately prior to release of the tourniquet and 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the tourniquet was released. Radiographic contrast material was infused into the same locations as the antibiotic perfusate to evaluate distribution in 6 other horses.

Results—Infusion into the saphenous vein produced the highest concentration of amikacin in the tibiotarsal joint, compared with the distal portion of the tibia (mean ± SE, 701.8 ± 366.8 vs 203.8 ± 64.5 µg/ml, respectively). Use of a lower volume of diluent in the proximal portion of the metatarsus produced a peak value of 72.2 ± 23.4 µg/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For regional perfusion of the tarsus, IV infusion is preferred to intraosseous infusion, because higher concentrations are achieved in the synovial fluid, and the procedure is easier to perform. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:374–380).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of a commercially available omeprazole paste and a compounded omeprazole suspension on healing of gastric ulcers in Thoroughbred racehorses in active training.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—32 horses with gastric ulcers.

Procedure—Horses were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of endoscopic gastric ulcer severity. Group-1 horses were treated with omeprazole suspension for 30 days and with omeprazole paste for an additional 30 days. Group-2 horses were treated with omeprazole paste for 30 days and omeprazole suspension for an additional 30 days. Serum omeprazole concentrations were measured in 4 additional healthy horses after administration of a single dose of each formulation. In all instances, omeprazole was administered at a dose of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb), PO.

Results—Ulcer severity scores on day 0 were not significantly different between groups. On day 30, ulcer severity score was significantly decreased, compared with day-0 score, in group-2 but not in group-1 horses. On day 60, ulcer severity score was significantly decreased, compared with day-0 and day-30 scores, in group-1 horses. In group-2 horses, ulcer severity score on day 60 was significantly lower than the day-0 score but was not significantly different from the day-30 score. Maximum observed serum omeprazole concentration and area under the concentration-time curve were significantly higher after administration of the paste versus the suspension formulation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that although administration of the commercially available paste omeprazole formulation was effective in promoting healing of gastric ulcers in these horses, administration of the compounded omeprazole suspension was ineffective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1139–1143)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome associated with cutaneous tumors treated via intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin and identify risk factors affecting local tumor control and complications in equidae.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—573 equidae with 630 cutaneous tumors.

Procedures—Medical records of horses, mules, donkeys, and ponies with cutaneous tumors treated via intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin were analyzed.

Results—549 horses, 13 mules, 8 donkeys, and 3 ponies with 630 histologically confirmed cutaneous tumors were included. Tumors included sarcoids (n = 409), squamous cell carci nomas (151), soft tissue sarcomas (28), cutaneous lymphomas (26), and melanomas (16). Overall cure rate, defined as local control at 4 years, was 93.3%. For all tumor stages combined, cure rates after 1 course of treatment were 96.3% for sarcoids, 96% for lym-phomas, 88% for squamous cell carcinomas, 85% for soft tissue sarcomas, and 81% for melanomas. Treatment protocol, tumor stage, and prior treatment were significant prog nostic factors for tumor control. Treatment efficacy was lower for large tumors, those with gross postoperative residual disease, and those that had been treated previously with other modalities. Treatment was well tolerated. Local reactions were more likely to occur and to be more severe after the third and fourth treatment sessions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirmed the value of intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin for treatment of cutaneous tumors in equidae.The results cannot be extrapolated to other formulations of cisplatin or other protocols that might be used.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities are altered during low flow ischemia and reperfusion of the small intestine of horses.

Animals

5 clinically normal horses without histories of abdominal problems.

Procedure

With the horse under general anesthesia, a laparotomy was performed and blood flow to a segment of the distal jejunum was reduced to 20% of baseline for 120 minutes and was then reperfused for 120 minutes. Biopsy specimens were obtained before, during, and after ischemia for determination of xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities, and for histologic and morphometric analyses.

Results

Percentage of xanthine oxidase activity (as a percentage of xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activity) was not altered during ischemia and reperfusion. An inflammatory response developed and progressed during ischemia and reperfusion. Mucosal lesions increased in severity after ischemia and reperfusion. Mucosal surface area and volume decreased during ischemia and continued to decrease during reperfusion. Submucosal volume increased slightly during ischemia, and continued to increase during reperfusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Evidence for conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase during ischemia was not found. Factors other than production of reactive oxygen metabolites may be responsible for progressive epithelial loss, decrease in mucosal surface area and volume, and increase in submucosal volume observed in this study. Other methods of determining xanthine oxidase activity that detect the enzyme in sloughed epithelial cells should be used to better define the importance of this pathway in jejunal reperfusion injury in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:772-776)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Microvascular permeability of the jejunum of clinically normal equids and microvascular permeability associated with 60 minutes of ischemia (25% baseline blood flow) and subsequent reperfusion were investigated. Eight adult horses were randomly allotted to 2 equal groups: normal and ischemic/reperfusion injury. Lymphatic flow rates, mesenteric blood flow, and lymph and plasma protein concentrations were determined at 15-minute intervals throughout the study. Microvascular permeability was determined by estimates of the osmotic reflection coefficient, which was determined when the ratio of lymphatic protein to plasma protein concentration reached a constant minimal value as lymph flow rate increased (filtration-independent lymph flow rate), which occurred at venous pressure of 30 mm of Hg. Full-thickness jejunal biopsy specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each experiment, and were prepared for light microscopy to estimate tissue volume (edema) and for transmission electron microscopy to evaluate capillary endothelial cell morphology.

The osmotic reflection coefficient for normal equine jejunum was 0.19 ± 0.06, and increased significantly (P < 0.0001) to 0.48 ± 0.05 after the ische- mia/reperfusion period. Microscopic evaluation revealed a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in submucosal and serosal volume and capillary endothelial cell damage in horses that underwent ischemia/reperfusion injury. Results indicate that ischemia/re-perfusion of the equine jejunum caused a significant increase in microvascular permeability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Sixteen horses were allotted at random to 3 groups: vehicle only; low dosage (vehicle and 3 mg of U-74389G/kg of body weight); high dosage (vehicle and 10 mg of U-74389G/kg). These solutions were given prior to reperfusion. The ascending colon was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Before, during, and after ischemia, full-thickness colonic tissue biopsy specimens were obtained for measurement of malondealdehyde (mda) concentration and myeloperoxidase activity and for morphologic evaluation.

Although increases were not significant, mda concentration and myeloperoxidase activity increased during ischemia and reperfusion. Administration of U-74389G did not have significant effects on mda concentration and myeloperoxidase activity. However, the lower dosage tended (P = 0.08) to reduce myeloperoxidase activity at 30 and 60 minutes of reperfusion.

In horses of the vehicle-only group, ischemia induced a decrease in mucosal surface area that was continued into the reperfusion period (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of U-74389G at both dosages (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented the reperfusion-induced reduction in mucosal surface area, which was significant at 60 minutes (high dosage; P = 0.05) and 90 minutes (low and high dosages; P = 0.02). After initial reduction in horses of all groups, mucosal volume increased for the initial 60 minutes of reperfusion.

Our results indicate that lipid peroxidation may be partially involved in continued cellular death after ischemia of the ascending colon of horses. The 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, prevented further loss of mucosa and partially attenuated the induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity during reperfusion of the ascending colon.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess clinical outcomes and scintigraphic findings in horses with a bone fragility disorder (BFD) treated with zoledronate (a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate).

Design—Prospective uncontrolled clinical trial.

Animals—10 horses with evidence of a BFD.

Procedures—Signalment, history, and geographic location of horses' home environments were recorded. Physical examinations, lameness evaluations, and nuclear scintigraphy were performed. Diagnosis of a BFD was made on the basis of results of clinical and scintigraphic examination. Each horse was treated with zoledronate (0.075 mg/kg [0.034 mg/lb, IV, once]) at the time of diagnosis. Horses were reevaluated 6 months after treatment.

Results—Affected horses were from the central and coastal regions of California and had ≥ 1 clinical sign of the disorder; these included scapular deformation (n = 2), lordosis (1), nonspecific signs of musculoskeletal pain (1), and lameness that could not be localized to a specific anatomic region (9). All horses had multiple sites of increased radiopharmaceutica uptake during initial scintigraphic evaluation of the axial skeleton and bones of 1 or both forelimbs. Six months after treatment, clinical improvement (defined as improvement in the lameness score, resolution of signs of musculoskeletal pain, or both) was detected in 9 of 10 horses; scintigraphic uptake was unchanged (n = 2) or subjectively decreased (8). No adverse effects attributed to zoledronate treatment were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with zoledronate appeared to be useful in improving clinical outcome and scintigraphic findings in horses with a BFD; however, future placebo-controlled studies are necessary to accurately determine efficacy and long-term safety.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association