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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the management of equids undergoing cryptorchidectomy at a referral hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—604 client-owned equids.

Procedures—Medical records of all equids undergoing surgical treatment of cryptorchidism from 1977 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses of breed, location of retained testes, accuracy of palpation per rectum for determining the location of retained testes, surgical technique, and postoperative complications were performed.

Results—The most frequently affected breed was the Quarter Horse (282/604 [47%]), which was significantly overrepresented. Of the 604 equids, 90 (15%) had undergone previous surgical attempts at castration. Preoperative palpation per rectum was performed in 395/604 (65.4%) patients, and was accurate in predicting the location of the retained testes in 354/395 (89.6%). Surgeons were significantly more likely to be incorrect in determining the location of the retained testis by means of palpation per rectum in patients that had undergone a prior attempt at castration. For equids with abdominal cryptorchidism (360/604 [59.6%]), the most common surgical technique was noninvasive cryptorchidectomy (298/360 [82.8%]). In unilateral cryptorchids (521/604 [86.3%]), the 2 most common sites were left abdominal (184/521 [35.3%]) and right inguinal (148/521 [28.4%]). For bilateral retention (80/604 [13.2%]), abdominal cryptorchidism was most common (48/80 [60%]). Fever was present in 138/324 (43%) equids on the first day after surgery. Postoperative fever was not significantly associated with any variables evaluated. Including postoperative (≤ 24 hours) fever, 150 of 604 (25%) patients developed postoperative complications. Excluding postoperative fever, 18 of 604 (3%) patients developed major postoperative complications; complications in 10 of 604 patients were deemed surgically related, and 3 of 604 patients died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cryptorchidectomy in equids performed with a variety of surgical approaches was associated with minimal postoperative complications. A history of previous attempts at castration decreased the ability to accurately predict the location of the retained testis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2- and 3-year-old and career race performance of Thoroughbred racehorse prospects with and without osteochondral fragmentation of the accessory carpal bone (ACB) identified on yearling presale radiographs.

DESIGN Retrospective, matched cohort study.

ANIMALS 47 nonlame Thoroughbreds with (exposed cohort) and 94 nonlame Thoroughbreds without (unexposed cohort) osteochondral fragmentation of ACB facture identified on yearling sales repository radiographs.

PROCEDURES Repository radiographic interpretation reports for September yearling sales of a large Kentucky auction house from 2005 through 2012 were reviewed, and race records were collected and analyzed. Race performance was compared between horses with and without ACB fracture chosen from the same sale to identify associations between racing performance and ACB fracture.

RESULTS No significant differences were identified between horses with or without ACB fracture in their incidence of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old and the number of races started, earnings, or earnings per start for 2- or 3-year-old or career race performance. There was no significant difference in performance between horses with or without concurrent carpal osteoarthritis, nor did performance differ between horses with ACB fracture alone and those with ACB fracture and other radiographic abnormalities found to be associated with poorer performance in previous studies.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ACB fracture with or without carpal osteoarthritic changes identified on repository radiographs of Thoroughbred yearlings was not associated with poorer racing performance or lower likelihood of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old, compared with outcomes for unaffected horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine causes for discharge of military working dogs (MWDs) from service.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—268 MWDs.

Procedures—Records of all MWDs approved for discharge from December 2000 through November 2004 were evaluated for cause of discharge.

Results—23 dogs had been obtained through the Department of Defense breeding program but had failed to meet prepurchase or certification standards. The remaining 245 (120 German Shepherd Dogs, 100 Belgian Malinois, and 25 dogs of other breeds) had been purchased as adults or obtained through the breeding program and had passed prepurchase and certification standards. Eighty-five of the 245 (34.7%) adult dogs were 1 to < 5 years old at discharge, and 160 (65.3%) were ≥ 5 years old at discharge. The proportion of adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (69.4%) was significantly greater than the proportion of adult dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (38.1%). Within the subgroup of dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge, median age at discharge for the German Shepherd Dogs (8.59 years) was significantly less than median age at discharge for the Belgian Malinois (10.61 years). For adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge, the most common cause for discharge was behavioral problems (82.3%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that longevity of service for MWDs may be influenced by breed differences and that selection criteria should be evaluated to reduce behavior-related discharge from service.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize features of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome in horses with foreign bodies, exclusive of enteric, inhaled, and foot-penetrating foreign bodies.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—37 horses with foreign bodies.

Procedures—The incidence of equine foreign bodies from 1990 through 2005 was determined by review of data from veterinary schools participating in the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB). Medical records of horses with foreign bodies at Purdue University were reviewed, and the following information was retrieved: clinical history; signalment; results of physical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examinations; results of microbial culture of the draining tract or foreign body material; surgical findings; antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatments; and complications of the surgical procedure. Long-term follow-up information was obtained from owners or referring veterinarians.

Results—The incidence of foreign bodies in horses with records in the VMDB was 1730/10,000 horse admissions. A preoperative diagnosis of foreign bodies was confirmed via ultrasonography in most horses examined (15/17 horses) and with plain film radiography in a quarter of horses examined (7/24 horses). Wood foreign bodies were the most common (59%; 22/37), followed by metal (24%; 9/37), hair (8%; 3/37), nonsequestrum bone (5%; 2/37), and plant material (3%; 1/37). Postoperative complications associated with the foreign body were more likely to develop with wood foreign bodies (3/22) than with other types of foreign bodies (1/15).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Wood was the most common penetrating foreign body in the horses in our study and was the type associated with the highest incidence of complications. Ultrasonography was more effective in locating foreign bodies than was radiography (plain and contrast) and should be performed in all horses with suspected foreign bodies.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To use results of microscopic agglutination tests (MATs) conducted at a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory to determine temporal and demographic distributions of positive serologic test results for leptospirosis in dogs and identify correlations among results for various Leptospira serovars.

Design—Serosurvey.

Study Population—MAT results for 33,119 canine serum samples submitted to a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory from 2000 through 2007.

Procedures—Electronic records of MAT results for dogs were obtained from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Seropositivity for antibodies against Leptospira serovars was determined by use of a cutoff titer of ≥ 1:1,600 to reduce the possible impact of postvaccinal antibodies on results. Correlations between results for all possible pairs of serovars were calculated by ordinal ranking of positive (≥ 1:100) antibody titer results.

Results—2,680 samples (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8% to 8.4%) were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. The highest percentage of positive MAT results was for the year 2007 (10.2%; 95% CI, 9.5% to 10.9%) and for the months of November and December during the study period. Antibodies were most common against serovars Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Bratislava. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was lowest for dogs > 10 years of age but was similar across other age strata.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis can affect dogs of small and large breeds and various ages. Although an increase in proportions of positive MAT results was evident in the fall, monthly and annual variations suggested potential exposure in all months. Because of the limitations of MAT results and the limited number of serovars used in the test, bacterial culture should be used to identify infective Leptospira serovars.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate and compare characteristics of a commercially manufactured protamine zinc insulin (PZI) product and PZI products obtained from various compounding pharmacies.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample—112 vials of PZI (16 vials of the commercially manufactured product and 8 vials from each of 12 compounding pharmacies) purchased over an 8-month period.

Procedures—Validated methods were used to analyze 2 vials of each product at 4 time points. Appearance, endotoxin concentration, crystal size, insulin concentration in the supernatant, pH, total insulin and zinc concentrations, and species of insulin origin were evaluated.

Results—All 16 vials of commercially manufactured PZI met United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications. Of 96 vials of compounded PZI, 1 (1 %) contained a concentration of endotoxin > 32 endotoxin U/mL, 23 (24%) had concentrations of insulin in the supernatant > 1.0 U/mL, and 45 (47%) had pH values < 7.1 or > 7.4; all of these values were outside of specifications. Several vials of compounded PZI (52/96 [54%]) did not meet specifications for zinc concentration (0.06 to 0.1 mg/mL for 40 U of insulin/mL, 0.075 to 0.12 mg/mL for 50 U of insulin/mL, and 0.15 to 0.25 mg/mL for 100 U of insulin/mL), and total insulin concentration in 36 [38%] vials was < 90% of the labeled concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Only 1 of 12 compounded PZI products met all USP specifications in all vials tested. Use of compounded PZI insulin products could potentially lead to serious problems with glycemic control in veterinary patients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxic effects of deracoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring, histologically confirmed, measurableTCC of the urinary bladder.

Procedures—Dogs were treated PO with deracoxib at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/d (1.36 mg/lb/d) as a single-agent treatment for TCC. Tumor response was assessed via radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic mapping of urinary bladder masses. Toxic effects of deracoxib administration in dogs were assessed through clinical observations and hematologic and biochemical analyses.

Results—Of 24 dogs for which tumor response was assessed, 4 (17%) had partial remission, 17 (71%) had stable disease, and 3 (13%) had progressive disease; initial response could not be assessed in 2 of 26 dogs. The median survival time was 323 days. Median time to progressive disease was 133 days. Renal, hepatic, and gastrointestinal abnormalities attributed to deracoxib administration were noted in 4% (1/26), 4% (1/26), and 19% (5/26) of dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that deracoxib was generally well tolerated by dogs and had antitumor activity against TCC.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available ELISA kit for detecting antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferiin dogs.

Sample Population—Banked sera from 440 military working dogs were used for serologic analyses.

Procedure—Serum samples were analyzed for antibodies against B burgdorferi by use of a commercially available ELISA and subsequently by western blot analysis as a confirmatory test.

Results—Results from the ELISA indicated that 89 (20%) samples were positive for exposure to B burgdorferi or canine Lyme disease vaccine, and 351 (80%) were negative. Follow-up testing by western blot analysis indicated that results for 109 (25%) samples were positive and 331 (75%) were negative for exposure. All samples that had positive results on the ELISA also had positive results on western blot analysis (true positives). Of the 351 samples that had negative results on the ELISA, only 331 had negative results on western blot analysis (true negatives). The remaining 20 samples had positive results on western blot analysis. By use of a standard 2 X 2 table, it was determined that the ELISA had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 94%.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The commercial ELISA kit evaluated in this study appeared to lack adequate sensitivity for detecting all potential cases of borreliosis in dogs. The ELISA was also unable to discriminate natural exposure from exposure attributable to vaccination, which could complicate interpretation of positive results and treatment of dogs with clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1418–1422)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the incidence of and identify patient risk factors for an acute adverse event in dogs after administration of a sustained-release injectable heartworm preventive product.

ANIMALS

Canine patients that received the injectable heartworm preventive product during routine preventive care visits.

METHODS

Retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of canine visits within a large network of primary care veterinary clinics in which the product was administered from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2020. Visits during which vaccination(s) were also administered were excluded from analysis. Identification of acute adverse events was based on diagnostic entries and other clinical presentations suggestive of an adverse event within 3 days of product administration. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression.

RESULTS

In the 5-year study period, 1,399,289 visits with 694,030 dogs led to an incidence estimate of approximately 14.3 events/10,000 doses. Regression analysis found younger dogs and 7 breeds (relative to mixed-breed dogs) to have statistically significant greater odds of an event.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Understanding of incidence and patient risk factors provides veterinary professionals and dog owners more information when deciding on heartworm preventive options for their dog when considering risk for adverse event in dogs of certain ages or breeds.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate patient and vaccine factors associated with adverse events (AEs) recorded within 3 days of vaccine administration in a large cohort of dogs.

ANIMALS

4,654,187 dogs vaccinated in 16,087,455 office visits in a 5-year period at 1,119 hospitals of a corporate practice.

METHODS

Electronic medical records of dogs vaccinated between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2020, were searched for diagnoses of possible AEs recorded within 3 days of administration of vaccines without concurrent injectable heartworm preventative. Patient risk factors (age, sex, breed, and weight) and number and type of vaccine were extracted from records. ORs (and 95% CIs) for risk factors were estimated via multivariable logistic regression mixed models with patient as a random effect.

RESULTS

AEs were recorded following 31,197 vaccination visits (0.19%, or 19.4/10,000 visits). Reported AE rates increased from 1 to 4 vaccines administered and among individual vaccines were greatest for rabies vaccine. AE rate was generally inversely related to body weight, with largest rates in dogs ≤ 5 kg. The largest AE rates were noted in French Bulldogs and Dachshunds (ORs > 4 compared to mixed-breed dogs).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Risk factor information can be used to update vaccination protocols and client communication. Breed differences may indicate genetics as the primary risk factor for adverse vaccine reactions following vaccinations.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association