Objective—To determine how viral shedding and
development or lack of clinical disease relate to contact
transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus New
Jersey (VSV-NJ) in pigs and determine whether pigs
infected by contact could infect other pigs by contact.
Procedure—Serologically naive pigs were housed in
direct contact with pigs that were experimentally
inoculated with VSV-NJ via ID inoculation of the apex
of the snout, application to a scarified area of the oral
mucosa, application to intact oral mucosa, or ID inoculation
of the ear. In a second experiment, pigs infected
with VSV-NJ by contact were moved and housed
with additional naive pigs. Pigs were monitored and
sampled daily for clinical disease and virus isolation
and were serologically tested before and after infection
Results—Contact transmission developed only when
vesicular lesions were evident. Transmission developed
rapidly; contact pigs shed virus as early as 1 day
after contact. In pens in which contact transmission
was detected, 2 of 3 or 3 of 3 contact pigs were
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transmission
was lesion-dependent; however, vesicular lesions
often were subtle with few or no clinical signs of
infection. Contact transmission was efficient, with
resulting infections ranging from subclinical (detected
only by seroconversion) to clinical (development of
vesicular lesions). Long-term maintenance of VSV-NJ
via contact transmission alone appears unlikely. Pigs
represent an efficient large-animal system for further
study of VSV-NJ pathogenesis and transmission. (Am
J Vet Res 2001;62:516–520)
Case Description—A 40.3-kg (88.7-lb) 6-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was evaluated because of acute unilateral epistaxis.
Clinical Findings—During the initial evaluation of the dog, systemic hypertension and a left adrenal gland mass were detected. The left adrenal gland mass was surgically removed; results of histologic examination of the mass indicated it was a pheochromocytoma. Ten months later, the dog was evaluated because of persistent systemic hypertension and development of polyuria, polydipsia, and excessive panting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mass in the cranial aspect of the right adrenal gland; results of MRI suggested the mass was a malignant tumor.
Treatment and Outcome—Epistaxis resolved after treatment and resolution of severe systemic hypertension. A partial right adrenalectomy was performed to remove the right adrenal gland mass. Results of histologic examination of the mass indicated it was a well-differentiated carcinoma of the cortex of the adrenal gland. Results of ACTH stimulation tests after surgery indicated the dog had adequate adrenal gland function.
Clinical Relevance—Partial adrenalectomy may be a safe and feasible treatment option to preserve adrenal gland function in dogs with small eccentrically located adrenal gland masses, particularly for dogs that have undergone removal of the contralateral adrenal gland.
Objective—To compare diagnostic quality of percutaneous
kidney biopsy specimens obtained with
laparoscopy versus ultrasound guidance in dogs and
compare diagnostic quality of specimens obtained
with 14- versus 18-gauge biopsy needles.
Animals—10 healthy dogs.
Procedure—In each dog, 2 biopsy specimens were
obtained from each kidney, 1 with a 14-gauge biopsy
needle and 1 with an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Biopsy
specimens were obtained from 1 kidney by means of
ultrasound guidance and from the contralateral kidney
by means of direct viewing during laparoscopy.
Number of glomeruli, quality of the biopsy specimen,
proportion of specimens that contained muscle tissue,
and proportion of specimens with fragmentation
or crushing were determined.
Results—Mean ± SD number of glomeruli (32.6
± 11.0) in laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens
was significantly higher than mean number of
glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 14-gauge specimens;
mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 18-gauge specimens;
and mean number of glomeruli in
laparoscopic, 18-gauge specimens. All 10 laparoscopic,
14-gauge biopsy specimens were classified as
excellent. The proportion of 18-gauge biopsy specimens
with crushing or fragmentation was significantly
higher than the proportion of 14-gauge specimens.
One of the kidneys biopsied with ultrasound guidance
had a large amount of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was
modest and transient following laparoscopic biopsy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that excellent-quality renal biopsy specimens
with large numbers of glomeruli can be obtained with
14-gauge, double-spring-activated biopsy needles during
laparoscopy. Renal biopsy specimens obtained
with 18-gauge biopsy needles frequently had few
glomeruli and often were crushed or fragmented,
increasing the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:317–321)