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- Author or Editor: Elizabeth Howerth x
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In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists
Objective—To determine whether pigs can be infected with strains of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana (VSV-I) isolated during recent vesicular stomatitis outbreaks that primarily involved horses in the western United States and determine the potential for these viruses to be transmitted by contact.
Procedure—Pigs were challenged with VSV-NJ or VSV-I from the 1995 and 1997 outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis in the western United States, respectively, or with VSV-NJ (OS) associated with vesicular stomatitis in feral pigs on Ossabaw Island, Ga. Pigs (3/group) were inoculated with each virus via 3 routes and evaluated for viral shedding, seroconversion, and the development of vesicular lesions. In another experiment, the potential for contact transmission of each virus from experimentally infected to naïve pigs was evaluated.
Results—Infection of pigs was achieved for all 3 viruses as determined by virus isolation and detection of seroconversion. In inoculated pigs, all 3 viruses were isolated from multiple swab samples at concentrations sufficient to infect other pigs. However, compared with results obtained with the 2 VSV-NJ strains, viral titers associated with VSV-I were low and the duration of virus shedding was reduced. Results from the contact transmission trials were consistent with these results; virus transmission was detected most frequently with the VSV-NJ strains.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pigs can be infected with VSV-NJ and VSV-I. Differences in the extent of viral shedding and potential for contact transmission were apparent between serotypes but not between the VSV-NJ strains investigated. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1233–1239)
Objective—To compare diagnostic quality of percutaneous kidney biopsy specimens obtained with laparoscopy versus ultrasound guidance in dogs and compare diagnostic quality of specimens obtained with 14- versus 18-gauge biopsy needles.
Animals—10 healthy dogs.
Procedure—In each dog, 2 biopsy specimens were obtained from each kidney, 1 with a 14-gauge biopsy needle and 1 with an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 1 kidney by means of ultrasound guidance and from the contralateral kidney by means of direct viewing during laparoscopy. Number of glomeruli, quality of the biopsy specimen, proportion of specimens that contained muscle tissue, and proportion of specimens with fragmentation or crushing were determined.
Results—Mean ± SD number of glomeruli (32.6 ± 11.0) in laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens was significantly higher than mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 14-gauge specimens; mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 18-gauge specimens; and mean number of glomeruli in laparoscopic, 18-gauge specimens. All 10 laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens were classified as excellent. The proportion of 18-gauge biopsy specimens with crushing or fragmentation was significantly higher than the proportion of 14-gauge specimens. One of the kidneys biopsied with ultrasound guidance had a large amount of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was modest and transient following laparoscopic biopsy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that excellent-quality renal biopsy specimens with large numbers of glomeruli can be obtained with 14-gauge, double-spring-activated biopsy needles during laparoscopy. Renal biopsy specimens obtained with 18-gauge biopsy needles frequently had few glomeruli and often were crushed or fragmented, increasing the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:317–321)