Objective—To determine whether pigs can be infected
with strains of vesicular stomatitis virus New
Jersey (VSV-NJ) and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana
(VSV-I) isolated during recent vesicular stomatitis outbreaks
that primarily involved horses in the western
United States and determine the potential for these
viruses to be transmitted by contact.
Procedure—Pigs were challenged with VSV-NJ or
VSV-I from the 1995 and 1997 outbreaks of vesicular
stomatitis in the western United States, respectively,
or with VSV-NJ (OS) associated with vesicular stomatitis
in feral pigs on Ossabaw Island, Ga. Pigs
(3/group) were inoculated with each virus via 3 routes
and evaluated for viral shedding, seroconversion, and
the development of vesicular lesions. In another
experiment, the potential for contact transmission of
each virus from experimentally infected to naïve pigs
Results—Infection of pigs was achieved for all 3
viruses as determined by virus isolation and detection
of seroconversion. In inoculated pigs, all 3 viruses
were isolated from multiple swab samples at concentrations
sufficient to infect other pigs. However, compared
with results obtained with the 2 VSV-NJ strains,
viral titers associated with VSV-I were low and the
duration of virus shedding was reduced. Results from
the contact transmission trials were consistent with
these results; virus transmission was detected most
frequently with the VSV-NJ strains.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pigs can be
infected with VSV-NJ and VSV-I. Differences in the
extent of viral shedding and potential for contact
transmission were apparent between serotypes but
not between the VSV-NJ strains investigated. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1233–1239)
Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic
gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach
position and strength of the adhesion between the
stomach and abdominal wall.
Animals—8 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the
abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A
laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted
on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus.
Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted
lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus
muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a
longitudinal incision was made through the serosa
and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the
seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured
to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery,
positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate
stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying,
and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach
wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1
month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion
Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of
gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and
the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal
wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of
the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic
gastropexy technique described in the present
study could be performed quickly and easily by an
experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous
adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall,
and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)
Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique
for cystopexy in dogs.
Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female
dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of
the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male
dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured
to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the
serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised
and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and
internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored
daily for 30 days after surgery.
Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and
voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic
(leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry)
and contrast radiographic studies performed
30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained
before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned
dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently
euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed
at the same time as the cystopexy.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy
to perform, and not associated with urinary tract
infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res