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  • Author or Editor: Denis J. Marcellin-Little x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the electrical impulse duration thresholds (chronaxy) for maximal motor contraction of various muscles without stimulation of pain fibers in dogs.

Animals—10 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedures—The dogs were used to assess the minimal intensity (rheobase) required to elicit motor contraction of 11 muscles (5 in the forelimb [supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoideus, lateral head of the triceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis], 5 in the hind limb [gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, and tibialis cranialis], and the erector spinae). The rheobase was used to determine the chronaxy for each of the 11 muscles in the 10 dogs; chronaxy values were compared with those reported for the corresponding muscles in humans.

Results—Compared with values in humans, chronaxy values for stimulation of AA motor fibers in the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles and muscles of the more distal portions of limbs were lower in dogs. For the other muscles evaluated, chronaxy values did not differ between dogs and humans.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of the dog-specific chronaxy values when performing electrical stimulation for strengthening muscles or providing pain relief is likely to minimize the pain perceived during treatment in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To describe placement of hinged transarticular external fixation (HTEF) frames and evaluate their ability to protect the primary repair of unstable joints while allowing joint mobility in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—8 cats and 6 dogs.

Procedure—HTEF frames were composed of metal or epoxy connecting rods and a hinge. Measurements of range of motion of affected and contralateral joints and radiographs were made after fixator application and removal.

Results—9 animals (4 cats and 5 dogs) had tarsal and 5 (4 cats and 1 dog) had stifle joint injuries. Treatment duration ranged from 45 to 100 days (median, 57 days). Ranges of motion in affected stifle and tarsal joints were 57% and 72% of control while HTEF was in place and 79% and 84% of control after frame removal. Complications were encountered in 3 cats and 2 dogs and included breakage of pins and connecting rods, hinge loosening, and failure at the hinge-epoxy interface.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HTEF in animals with traumatic joint instability provided adjunctive joint stabilization during healing and protection of the primary repair and maintained joint motion during healing, resulting in early weight bearing of the affected limb. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:586–591)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To objectively measure the current demographic makeup of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) diplomates and to develop a survey tool to be used as a metric to measure future changes in the ACVS demographic profile.

SAMPLE

737 ACVS diplomates.

METHODS

A 14-item electronic survey was sent to 2,199 ACVS diplomates between August 25 and September 9, 2021, via email. Survey items included demographic information as well as perceptions about the ACVS and diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). Responses were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.

RESULTS

The survey response rate was 34% (737/2,199). The median age category among respondents was 45 to 54. The median years in practice as a diplomate was 11 to 15. The majority of respondents identified as white/Caucasian and heterosexual, with male and female respondents being similarly represented. Most respondents identified English as their first language. Few considered themselves first-generation college graduates or identified as disabled. Many respondents considered DEI to be an important initiative to promote in the ACVS.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that the majority of ACVS respondents are supportive of DEI efforts. This study also serves as an objective analysis that can be reassessed in the future to determine the success of such initiatives.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify potential risk factors for digit injuries in dogs training and competing in agility events.

DESIGN Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

ANIMALS 1,081 dogs training or competing in agility events.

PROCEDURES Data were collected for eligible animals via retrospective surveys distributed electronically to handlers of dogs participating in agility-related activities. Variables evaluated included demographic (handlers) and signalment (dogs) information, physical characteristics of dogs, and injury characteristics. A separate survey of dogs competing in similar agility-related activities but without digit injuries was also administered. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a model for assessment of risk factors.

RESULTS Data were collected from 207 agility dogs with digit injuries and 874 agility dogs without digit injuries. Factors associated with significantly increased odds of injury included Border Collie breed (OR, 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 3.3), long nails (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.5), absence of front dewclaws (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6), and greater weight-to-height ratio (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0). Odds of injury decreased with increasing age of the dog (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.86).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results should be cautiously interpreted because of potential respondent and recall bias and lack of review of medical records. Nevertheless, results suggested that retaining healthy dewclaws, maintaining lean body mass, and trimming nails short for training and competition may decrease the likelihood of digit injuries. Research to investigate training practices, obstacle construction specifcations, and surface considerations for dogs competing in agility activities is indicated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the kinematics and stability of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of cats and dogs with and without a TMJ replacement (TMJR) prosthesis under simulated bite forces and mouth opening.

ANIMALS

Sixteen cadaver skulls from domestic cats (n = 8) and medium- to large-breed dogs (n = 8).

METHODS

Intact TMJs were tested. Following condylectomy and coronoidectomy, the skulls were fitted with a TMJR prosthesis unilaterally and retested. Prosthesis was similarly implanted in the contralateral TMJ in 4 cats and 4 dogs before retesting. Left and right bite motions were evaluated before bite contact to peak bite force (200 N in dogs, 63 N in cats). Mouth opening motion was recorded. Mandibular displacement under load was evaluated in 3 orthogonal planes. Maximal displacement was compared between TMJR groups and native TMJ. Prosthesis-bone motion of the temporal and mandibular components was evaluated during simulated bites and mouth opening.

RESULTS

TMJR resulted in joint motion not demonstrably different from the native TMJ, with the ability to fully open and close the mouth and with minimal laterotrusion. The TMJR prosthesis demonstrated similar stability after unilateral and bilateral replacement during bite force and with an open mouth. Mean implant-bone motion during bite simulations for the temporal and mandibular TMJR components was ≤ 60 µm in cats and ≤ 30 µm in dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A novel TMJR can be implanted and allows normal jaw motion. Joint stability is maintained after TMJR implantation in the TMJ of dogs and cats TMJ that is devoid of muscular support.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate the effects of the chondrodystrophy-associated FGF4L2 retrogene on intervertebral disc (IVD) calcification and vertebral geometry.

ANIMALS

22 Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTR) with no FGF4L2 retrogene (n = 7, wild-type dogs), 1 retrogene copy (8, heterozygous dogs), or 2 retrogene copies (7, homozygous dogs).

PROCEDURES

Computed tomography (CT) scans of the vertebral column were analyzed using computer-aided design (CAD) software. IVD calcification, vertebral column length, and vertebral geometry of the third cervical (C3), 13th thoracic (T13), and first lumbar (L1) vertebrae were compared.

RESULTS

IVD calcification was not found in wild-type dogs. IVD calcification was more frequent in homozygous dogs than heterozygous (P = .008) or wild-type dogs (P < .001) and in heterozygous dogs compared to wild-type dogs (P < .001). Four IVDs were subclinically herniated in 3 dogs (2 homozygous, 1 heterozygous). Calcified IVD had a greater volume and surface area in heterozygous dogs than homozygous dogs. C3 vertebral canal height-to-width ratio was greater in homozygous dogs than heterozygous dogs (P = .044) and wild-type dogs (P = .010).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IVD calcification and vertebral geometry can be analyzed using CAD software. The presence of 1 or 2 FGF4L2 copies in the absence of the FGF4L1 retrogene has an additive effect on the number of calcified IVD and a minor effect on vertebral geometry in NSDTR dogs. Data support the use of FGF4L2 phenotyping to reduce clinical disease in segregating breeds and to monitor the introduction of wild-type alleles into fixed breed populations.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study is to compare drilling variables and torsional mechanical properties of rabbit femora after bicortical drilling with a 1.5-mm standard surgical drill bit, acrylic drill bit, and K-wire.

SAMPLES

24 pairs of rabbit femora.

METHODS

After drilling under controlled axial displacement rate, each bone was biaxially loaded in compression followed by rapid external torsion to failure. Maximum axial thrust force, maximum drill torque, integral of force and displacement, change in temperature, maximum power spectral density of the torque signal, torque vibration, and torque and angle at the yield and failure points were collected. Pre- and postyield stiffness, yield and failure energies, and postyield energy were calculated.

RESULTS

The work required to drill through the cis- and transcortices (integral of force and displacement) was greater for the K-wire, followed by the acrylic and then standard drill bits, respectively. The K-wire demonstrated higher maximum torque than the drill bits at the ciscortex, and the force of drilling was significantly greater. The vibration data was greater with the acrylic and standard drill bits than the K-wire. There was no difference in torsional strength between drilling types.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Mechanical differences exist between different drill bits and K-wire and demonstrate that the K-wire is overall more damaging than the surgical drill bit.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Determine whether dogs with well-functioning orthopedic metal implants can develop metal reactivity.

SAMPLE

Client-owned dogs that had tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or total hip replacement (THR) implants for 12 months or more and control dogs with no implants.

PROCEDURES

Lymphocyte transformation testing was performed by exposing peripheral blood lymphocytes to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), or a combination of these metals. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed with flow cytometry. Lymphocyte stimulation indexes (SIs) were calculated. A SI > 2 was considered reactive. Median SIs of dogs in response to metal exposure were compared statistically.

RESULTS

Samples from 10 dogs with TPLO, 12 dogs with THR, and 7 control dogs were analyzed. Six dogs out of 22 with metal implants had a reactive SI to 1 or more metals, while 2 of 7 control dogs had a SI > 2 when exposed to nickel only. When all metals were considered, no differences in metal reactivity were found between TPLO, THR, and control groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Metal reactivity is present in dogs and can be identified using lymphocyte transformation testing. Reactivity to Ni is present in dogs with and without metal implants. Reactivity to Co and Cr occurs in some dogs with metal implants.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare osteoarthritis scores assigned through radiographic evaluation of 18 anatomic regions in the elbow joint with scores assigned through evaluation of 3-D maximum intensity projection (MIP), 3-D surface rendering (TSR), and multiplanar reconstructed (MPR) CT images, and to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement of radiographic and CT scoring.

SAMPLE

Radiographic and CT images of 39 elbow joints in 20 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Images were anonymized and graded independently by 5 observers. One observer graded 12 elbow joints 3 times. Intraobserver consistency and repeatability, interobserver agreement, consistency among methods, and bias between methods were calculated.

RESULTS

The most severe changes were observed at the proximal aspect of the anconeal process, and the medial and cranial aspects of the medial coronoid process. Intraobserver consistency was moderate or better for 11/16 regions with MIP images, 11/16 regions with TSR images, 17/18 regions with MPR images, and 14/18 regions with radiographic images. Interobserver agreement was moderate or better for 5/16 regions with MIP images, 9/16 regions with TSR images, 12/18 regions with MPR images, and 6/18 regions with radiographic images. Mean scores from CT-based methods were higher than mean radiographic scores.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Assessments of osteoarthritis severity in the elbow joints of dogs obtained by examining radiographic images were generally consistent with assessments obtained by examining CT scans. MPR scores were more consistent and more comparable to radiographic scores than were MIP or TSR scores.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research