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Abstract

Objective—To characterize rib, intrathoracic, and concurrent orthopedic injuries, and prognosis associated with traumatic rib fracture in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—75 cats.

Procedure—Medical records from January 1980 to August 1998 were examined for cats with traumatic rib fracture. Signalment, cause of trauma, interval from trauma to evaluation at a veterinary teaching hospital, referral status and date, method of diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, number and location of rib fractures, presence of flail chest, costal cartilage involvement, intrathoracic and concurrent orthopedic injury, and clinical outcome were reviewed.

Results—Median age was 3 years. Twenty-five (58%) cats with reported cause of trauma were injured by interaction with another animal. Fortyseven (78%) cats that were treated survived. Cats that died had a median duration of hospitalization of < 1 day. Ten (13%) cats had flail chest. Sixty-five (87%) cats had intrathoracic injury (median, 2 injuries). Nine (100%) cats without detected intrathoracic injury that were treated survived. Thirty-five (47%) cats had concurrent orthopedic injury. Cats with flail chest, pleural effusion, or diaphragmatic hernia were significantly more likely to die than cats without each injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Traumatic rib fracture in cats is associated with intrathoracic and concurrent orthopedic injury. Aggressive treatment of cats with traumatic rib fracture is warranted, because the prognosis is generally favorable. Diagnosis and treatment of intrathoracic injury associated with traumatic rib fracture in cats should precede management of concurrent orthopedic injury. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:51–54)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To use an inverse dynamics method to describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb in 3 dimensions.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, 16 anatomic and tracking markers were used to define the center of rotation for the pelvic limb joints and a kinematic model was created to describe the motion of the pelvic limb. Kinetic, kinematic, and morphometric data were combined so that an inverse dynamics method could be used to define angular displacement, joint moment, and power of the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Results—Movement and energy patterns were described for the hip, stifle, and hock joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of the 3-D movement of the pelvic limb can be used to better understand its motion, moment, and energy patterns in healthy dogs and provide a referent with which gaits of dogs with pelvic limb injuries before and after surgical repair or rehabilitation can be compared and characterized. This information can then be used to guide decisions regarding treatment options for dogs with pelvic limb injuries.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the 3-D motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)–deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or lateral fabellar–tibial suture (LFS) stabilization by use of an inverse dynamics method.

Animals—6 clinically normal dogs and 19 dogs with CCL-deficient stifle joints that had undergone TPLO (n = 13) or LFS (6) stabilization at a mean of 4 and 8 years, respectively, prior to evaluation.

Procedures—For all dogs, an inverse dynamics method was used to describe the motion of the pelvic limbs in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Motion and energy patterns for the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in all 3 planes were compared among the 3 groups.

Results—Compared with corresponding variables for clinically normal dogs, the hip joint was more extended at the beginning of the stance phase in the sagittal plane for dogs that had a TPLO performed and the maximum power across the stifle joint in the frontal plane was greater for dogs that had an LFS procedure performed. Otherwise, variables in all planes were similar among the 3 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gait characteristics of the pelvic limb did not differ between dogs that underwent TPLO and dogs that underwent an LFS procedure for CCL repair and were similar to those of clinically normal dogs. Both TPLO and LFS successfully provided long-term stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints of dogs with minimal alterations in gait.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effectiveness of preoperative PO and SC administration of buprenorphine and meloxicam for prevention of postoperative pain-associated behaviors in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—51 female cats (4 to 60 months old; weight range, 1.41 to 4.73 kg [3.1 to 10.4 lb]).

Procedure—Cats received 1 of 5 treatments at the time of anesthetic induction: buprenorphine PO (0.01 mg/kg [0.0045 mg/lb]; n = 10), buprenorphine SC (0.01 mg/kg; 10), meloxicam SC (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb]; 10), meloxicam PO (0.3 mg/kg; 10), or 0.3 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution SC (control group; 11). Sedation scores and visual analog scale and interactive visual analog scale (IVAS) pain-associated behavior scores were assigned to each cat 2 hours before and at intervals until 20 hours after surgery.

Results—Cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC had significantly lower IVAS scores (2.91 and 2.02, respectively), compared with IVAS scores for cats receiving buprenorphine PO (7.55). Pain-associated behavior scores for cats administered buprenorphine or meloxicam PO or SC preoperatively did not differ significantly from control group scores. Rescue analgesia was not required by any of the cats receiving meloxicam, whereas 3 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine PO, 2 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine SC, and 1 of 11 cats receiving the control treatment required rescue analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of pain-associated behavior scores, cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC before ovariohysterectomy appeared to have less pain after surgery than those receiving buprenorphine PO preoperatively. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1937–1944)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials in 3 Staphylococcus spp commonly isolated from dogs increased from 2001 to 2005.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—1,772 clinical samples of various types obtained from dogs examined at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital or at regional veterinary hospitals and submitted to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories associated with the teaching hospital.

Procedures—Samples were submitted by attending veterinarians to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories for routine aerobic microbial culture. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility procedures were performed on all isolates. Susceptibility reports for each antimicrobial and Staphylococcus spp were determined from aggregate electronically archived test results. Oxacillin and multidrug resistance for Staphylococcus intermedius was analyzed by reviewing disk diffusion zone measurements.

Results—Oxacillin resistance increased among S intermedius isolates during the past 5 years, and the increase was associated with multidrug resistance. In 2005, 1 in 5 Staphylococcus spp isolates from canine clinical samples was resistant to oxacillin. The most common staphylococcal species isolated were S intermedius (n = 37), Staphylococcus schleiferi (21), and Staphylococcus aureus (4), and frequencies of oxacillin resistance in isolates of these species were 15.6%, 46.6%, and 23.5%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should be aware of the potential for empiric drug treatment failures in instances where Staphylococcus spp infections are common (eg, pyoderma). Judicious use of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is recommended.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Protein (western) blot analysis and virus-neutralization assay were used to evaluate the antibody response of specific-pathogen-free kittens to FeLV vaccination and followed by natural exposure. Several kittens had barely detectable reactions to specific FeLV antigens prior to vaccination or exposure. Correlation was not found between protection against persistent viremia and antibody response after vaccination as measured by western blot analysis or virus neutralization assay. A statistically significant (P < 0.01) difference in the antibody response against p27 antigen after natural exposure to FeLV was observed between persistently viremic kittens and transiently viremic or aviremic kittens. Measurable (P < 0.05) virus neutralizing antibody titer after FeLV exposure was found only in a small number of kittens that were protected against persistent viremia. Lack of association between humoral response and vaccination-induced protection against persistent FeLV infection suggests an important role for cell-mediated immunity in such protection.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine changes occurring in normal pelvic suspensory ligaments (SLs) of horses after denervating these ligaments and to investigate the effect chronic inflammation might have on these changes.

ANIMALS

10 horses.

PROCEDURES

The SL of 1 randomly selected pelvic limb of each of 5 horses was injected with collagenase to induce desmitis, and 42 days later, the proximal aspect of both pelvic SLs were denervated. The SLs were harvested 120 days after being denervated, and the morphological and histological characteristics of each collagenase-injected, denervated SL were compared with those of the contralateral, non-injected, denervated SL. All denervated SLs were compared with non-denervated pelvic SLs harvested from 5 horses similar in weight and age.

RESULTS

The mean width and the cross-sectional area of the musculature of all denervated SLs were significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. The mean thickness of collagenase-injected denervated ligaments, but not that of the non-injected denervated ligaments, was significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. Histological abnormalities typical of neurogenic muscular atrophy were observed in all denervated ligaments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Loss of motor neuronal input to the proximal aspect of the SL of the pelvic limb of horses causes neurogenic atrophy of the musculature in that portion of the ligament. Denervating a SL of a pelvic limb may weaken the ligament, increasing its risk of injury. Chronic inflammation of the SL before neurectomy may exacerbate atrophy of the musculature after neurectomy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.

ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MACNM (MACNM-T) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MACNM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine.

RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MACNM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MACNM decreased from MACNM-B to MACNM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MACNM of sevoflurane in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure antibody titers against bovine coronavirus (BCV), determine frequency of BCV in nasal swab specimens, and compare calves treated for bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) between those given an intranasally administered vaccine and control calves.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—414 heifer calves.

Procedure—Intranasal BCV antigen concentration and antibody titer against BCV were measured on entry to a feedlot. Calves were randomly assigned to receive 3.0 mL of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine enteric coronavirus and rotavirus or 3.0 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Calves were confined to 1 of 2 pens, depending on vaccination status, for a minimum of 17 days of observation (range, 17 to 99). Selection of calves for treatment of BRD and scoring for severity of disease were done by veterinarians unaware of treatment status.

Results—Intranasal BCV (125/407 [31%]) and serum antibody titers ≥ 20 against BCV (246/396 [62%]) were identified in calves entering the feedlot. Vaccination was associated with significant decrease in risk of treatment for BRD; intranasal BCV on entry to the feedlot was associated with increased risk of treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that control calves with intranasal BRD on entry to the feedlot and those with antibody titer < 20 were significantly more likely to be treated for BRD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data provide further evidence of an association between BCV and respiratory tract disease in feedlot calves. An intranasally administered vaccine appeared to reduce risk of treatment for BRD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:726–731)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association