Objective—To compare the effectiveness of preoperative
PO and SC administration of buprenorphine and
meloxicam for prevention of postoperative pain-associated
behaviors in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Design—Randomized controlled study.
Animals—51 female cats (4 to 60 months old; weight
range, 1.41 to 4.73 kg [3.1 to 10.4 lb]).
Procedure—Cats received 1 of 5 treatments at the time
of anesthetic induction: buprenorphine PO (0.01 mg/kg
[0.0045 mg/lb]; n = 10), buprenorphine SC (0.01 mg/kg;
10), meloxicam SC (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb]; 10), meloxicam
PO (0.3 mg/kg; 10), or 0.3 mL of sterile saline (0.9%
NaCl) solution SC (control group; 11). Sedation scores
and visual analog scale and interactive visual analog
scale (IVAS) pain-associated behavior scores were
assigned to each cat 2 hours before and at intervals until
20 hours after surgery.
Results—Cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC had
significantly lower IVAS scores (2.91 and 2.02,
respectively), compared with IVAS scores for cats
receiving buprenorphine PO (7.55). Pain-associated
behavior scores for cats administered buprenorphine
or meloxicam PO or SC preoperatively did not differ
significantly from control group scores. Rescue analgesia
was not required by any of the cats receiving
meloxicam, whereas 3 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine
PO, 2 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine SC,
and 1 of 11 cats receiving the control treatment
required rescue analgesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis
of pain-associated behavior scores, cats receiving
meloxicam PO or SC before ovariohysterectomy
appeared to have less pain after surgery than those
receiving buprenorphine PO preoperatively. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1937–1944)
To examine changes occurring in normal pelvic suspensory ligaments (SLs) of horses after denervating these ligaments and to investigate the effect chronic inflammation might have on these changes.
The SL of 1 randomly selected pelvic limb of each of 5 horses was injected with collagenase to induce desmitis, and 42 days later, the proximal aspect of both pelvic SLs were denervated. The SLs were harvested 120 days after being denervated, and the morphological and histological characteristics of each collagenase-injected, denervated SL were compared with those of the contralateral, non-injected, denervated SL. All denervated SLs were compared with non-denervated pelvic SLs harvested from 5 horses similar in weight and age.
The mean width and the cross-sectional area of the musculature of all denervated SLs were significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. The mean thickness of collagenase-injected denervated ligaments, but not that of the non-injected denervated ligaments, was significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. Histological abnormalities typical of neurogenic muscular atrophy were observed in all denervated ligaments.
Loss of motor neuronal input to the proximal aspect of the SL of the pelvic limb of horses causes neurogenic atrophy of the musculature in that portion of the ligament. Denervating a SL of a pelvic limb may weaken the ligament, increasing its risk of injury. Chronic inflammation of the SL before neurectomy may exacerbate atrophy of the musculature after neurectomy.
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.
ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MACNM (MACNM-T) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MACNM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine.
RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MACNM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MACNM decreased from MACNM-B to MACNM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MACNM of sevoflurane in dogs.
Objective—To measure antibody titers against
bovine coronavirus (BCV), determine frequency of
BCV in nasal swab specimens, and compare calves
treated for bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD)
between those given an intranasally administered
vaccine and control calves.
Design—Randomized clinical trial.
Animals—414 heifer calves.
Procedure—Intranasal BCV antigen concentration
and antibody titer against BCV were measured on
entry to a feedlot. Calves were randomly assigned to
receive 3.0 mL of a modified-live virus vaccine against
bovine enteric coronavirus and rotavirus or 3.0 mL of
saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Calves were confined to
1 of 2 pens, depending on vaccination status, for a
minimum of 17 days of observation (range, 17 to 99).
Selection of calves for treatment of BRD and scoring
for severity of disease were done by veterinarians
unaware of treatment status.
Results—Intranasal BCV (125/407 [31%]) and serum
antibody titers ≥ 20 against BCV (246/396 [62%])
were identified in calves entering the feedlot.
Vaccination was associated with significant decrease
in risk of treatment for BRD; intranasal BCV on entry
to the feedlot was associated with increased risk of
treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that control
calves with intranasal BRD on entry to the feedlot and
those with antibody titer < 20 were significantly more
likely to be treated for BRD.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data
provide further evidence of an association between
BCV and respiratory tract disease in feedlot calves.
An intranasally administered vaccine appeared to
reduce risk of treatment for BRD. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To create a mathematical model to assist in early prediction of the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old.
Study Design—Prospective study.
Procedures—Medical records from 910 hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old for which outcome was recorded as died or discharged alive were reviewed. Thirty-four variables including historical information, physical examination findings, and laboratory results were examined for association with survival. Variables associated with being discharged alive were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Accuracy of the model was validated prospectively on data from 163 foals.
Results—Factors in the final model included age group, ability to stand, presence of a suckle reflex, WBC count, serum creatinine concentration, and anion gap. Sensitivity and specificity of the model to predict live discharge were 92% and 74%, respectively, in the retrospective population and 90% and 46%, respectively, in the prospective population. Accuracy of an equine clinician's initial prediction of the foal being discharged alive was 83%, and accuracy of the model's prediction was 81%. Combining the clinician's prediction of probability of live discharge with that of the model significantly increased (median increase, 12%) the accuracy of the prediction for foals that were discharged and nonsignificantly decreased (median decrease, 9%) the accuracy of the predication for nonsurvivors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Combining the clinician's initial predication of the probability of a foal being discharged alive with that of the model appeared to provide a more precise early estimate of the probability of live discharge for hospitalized foals.