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  • Author or Editor: Ronald E. Baynes x
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Abstract

Objective—To investigate the feasibility of using multivariate cluster analysis to meta-analyze pharmacokinetic data obtained from studies of pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate in cattle and identify factors that could account for variability in pharmacokinetic parameters among studies.

Sample Population—Data from original studies of the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate in cattle in the database of the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank.

Procedure—Mean plasma or serum ampicillin concentration versus time data and potential factors that may have affected the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate were obtained from each study. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed, and values of pharmacokinetic parameters were clustered by use of multivariate cluster analysis. Practical importance of the clusters was evaluated by comparing the frequency of factors that may have affected the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate among clusters.

Results—A single cluster with lower mean values for clearance and volume of distribution of ampicillin trihydrate administered PO, compared with other clusters, was identified. This cluster included studies that used preruminant calves in which feeding was withheld overnight and calves to which probenecid had been administered concurrently.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meta-analysis was successful in detecting a potential subpopulation of cattle for which factors that explained differences in pharmacokinetic parameters could be identified. Accurate estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters are important for the calculation of dosages and extended withdrawal intervals after extralabel drug administration. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:108–112)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin differed between healthy and mastitic cows.

Design—Prospective controlled clinical trial.

Animals—20 lactating Holstein cows.

Procedures—Cows with mastitis and matched control cows received flunixin IV, ceftiofur IM, and cephapirin or ceftiofur, intramammary. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 hours after flunixin administration. Composite milk samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96 hours. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed by use of ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Results—For flunixin in plasma samples, differences in area under the concentration-time curve and clearance were detected between groups. Differences in flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations in milk were detected at various time points. At 36 hours after flunixin administration (milk withdrawal time), 8 cows with mastitis had 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations higher than the tolerance limit (ie, residues). Flunixin residues persisted in milk up to 60 hours after administration in 3 of 10 mastitic cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetics and elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin in milk differed between mastitic and healthy cows, resulting in violative residues. This may partially explain the high number of flunixin residues reported in beef and dairy cattle. This study also raised questions as to whether healthy animals should be used when determining withdrawal times for meat and milk.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the elimination kinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in milk after intramammary administration in lactating dairy cows.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—5 lactating dairy cows.

Procedure—After collection of baseline milk samples, 300 mg (6 mL) of ceftiofur was infused into the left front and right rear mammary gland quarters of each cow. Approximately 12 hours later, an additional 300 mg of ceftiofur was administered into the same mammary gland quarters after milking. Milk samples were collected from each mammary gland quarter every 12 hours for 10 days. Concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites in each milk sample were determined to assess the rate of ceftiofur elimination.

Results—Although there were considerable variations among mammary gland quarters and individual cows, ceftiofur concentrations in milk from all treated mammary gland quarters were less than the tolerance (0.1 µg/mL) set by the FDA by 168 hours (7 days) after the last intramammary administration of ceftiofur. No drug concentrations were detected in milk samples beyond this period. Ceftiofur was not detected in any milk samples from nontreated mammary gland quarters throughout the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ceftiofur administered by the intramammary route as an extralabel treatment for mastitis in dairy cows reaches concentrations in milk greater than the tolerance set by the FDA. Results indicated that milk from treated mammary gland quarters should be discarded for a minimum of 7 days after intramammary administration of ceftiofur. Elimination of ceftiofur may be correlated with milk production, and cows producing smaller volumes of milk may have prolonged withdrawal times. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1827–1830)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate variation of drinking-water flow rates in swine finishing barns and the relationship between drinker flow rate and plasma tetracycline concentrations in pigs housed in different pens.

Design—Cross-sectional (phase 1) and cohort (phase 2) studies.

Sample Population—13 swine finishing farms (100 barns with 7,122 drinkers) in phase 1 and 100 finishing-stage pigs on 2 finishing farms (1 barn/farm) in phase 2.

Procedures—In phase 1, farms were evaluated for water-flow variation, taking into account the following variables: position of drinkers within the barn, type of drinker (swing or mounted), pig medication status, existence of designated sick pen, and existence of leakage from the waterline. In phase 2, blood samples were collected from 50 pigs/barn (40 healthy and 10 sick pigs) in 2 farms at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after initiation of water-administered tetracycline HCl (estimated dosage, 22 mg/kg [10 mg/lb]). Plasma tetracycline concentrations were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography.

Results—Mean farm drinker flow rates ranged from 1.44 to 2.77 L/min. Significant differences in flow rates existed according to drinker type and whether tetracycline was included in the water. Mean drinker flow rates and plasma tetracycline concentrations were significantly different between the 2 farms but were not different between healthy and sick pigs. The plasma tetracycline concentrations were typically < 0.3 μg/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many factors affected drinker flow rates and therefore the amount of medication pigs might have received. Medication of pigs with tetracycline through water as performed in this study had questionable therapeutic value.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin between 3-week-old (preweaned) and 6-month-old (weaned) calves and to characterize the distribution of tulathromcyin into pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) of preweaned and weaned calves following SC administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg).

ANIMALS 8 healthy 3-week-old and 8 healthy 6-month-old Holstein steers.

PROCEDURES A jugular catheter and SC ultrafiltration probe were aseptically placed in the neck of each calf before tulathromycin administration. Blood, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected at predetermined times before and after tulathromycin administration for quantification of drug concentration. A urea dilution method was used to estimate tulathromycin concentration in PELF from that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was determined by in vitro methods. Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined by a 2-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameters and drug concentrations were compared between preweaned and weaned calves.

RESULTS Clearance and volume of distribution per fraction of tulathromycin absorbed were significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Maximum PELF tulathromycin concentration was significantly greater than the maximum plasma and maximum ISF tulathromycin concentrations in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that age affected multiple pharmacokinetic parameters of tulathromycin, likely owing to physiologic changes as calves mature from preruminants to ruminants. Knowledge of those changes may be useful in the development of studies to evaluate potential dose adjustments during treatment of calves with respiratory tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the influence of stage of lactation on the pharmacokinetics in milk when multiple doses of meloxicam were administered alone or in combination with gabapentin to postpartum (PP) and mid-lactation (ML) cows.

ANIMALS

8 postpartum and 8 mid-lactation dairy cows.

METHODS

Cows were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 8) which included 4 PP cows and 4 ML cows. Group I received only 6 oral daily doses of meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg for 6 doses). Group II received 6 oral daily doses of co-administered meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg) and gabapentin (20 mg/kg) for 6 doses. Meloxicam and gabapentin were quantified in plasma and milk samples by ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and the pharmacokinetic analysis of milk and plasma was performed using a non-compartmental approach.

RESULTS

Regardless of lactation status, dairy cattle administered multiple doses of meloxicam and/or gabapentin showed low drug residue concentrations and little accumulation in milk. The terminal plasma half-life of meloxicam was significantly increased (P < .02) in PP cows (12.9 hr) compared to ML cows (9.4 hr). The apparent terminal half-life in milk for meloxicam and gabapentin was not affected by stage of lactation. Co-administration of gabapentin did not alter plasma or milk concentrations of meloxicam.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The results of this study suggest that milk from cows treated with multiple doses of meloxicam alone or in combination with gabapentin will have low drug concentrations and falls below our reported limit of detection for meloxicam or gabapentin 120 and 60 hours respectively, following the final dose regardless of their stage of lactation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old.

PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods.

RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research