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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether pedal bacteremia develops following regional IV perfusion (RIVP) of a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution in cattle with deep digital sepsis (DDS) and to determine which bacterial pathogens are most commonly isolated from the pedal circulation.

Design—Prospective observational cohort study.

Animals—9 adult cattle with DDS in 10 limbs and 10 healthy adult cattle with no evidence of lameness or digital infection.

Procedures—Blood samples were obtained aseptically from the dorsal common digital vein immediately following tourniquet application and 30 to 60 minutes after aseptic RIVP with a 2% lidocaine solution. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed on all samples collected. For cattle with DDS, clinical examination with or without debridement of digital lesions was performed after RIVP.

Results—Bacteria were isolated from pedal blood prior to RIVP in 1 cow with DDS and after RIVP and examination with or without debridement in that cow and 4 additional cattle with DDS. Bacteria were not isolated from any blood sample obtained from the healthy cattle. Of the 8 bacterial isolates identified, 5 were gram-positive facultative anaerobes. Cattle with DDS were significantly more likely to develop bacteremia in the pedal circulation than were healthy cattle following RIVP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that bacteremia may be present in the pedal circulation before and following RIVP and examination with or without debridement in cattle with DDS. Thus, systemic or local antimicrobial treatment might be warranted prior to or concurrently with RIVP in cattle with DDS.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize frontal sinusitis unrelated to standard dehorning procedures in adult beef bulls.

ANIMALS

18 beef bulls > 2 years of age treated for frontal sinusitis at a veterinary medical teaching hospital between May 1999 and May 2014.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed. Information obtained for each bull included signalment, history, findings from physical examination and diagnostic procedures, treatment, and survival to discharge. Long-term follow-up (≥ 1 year) was obtained from owners by telephone.

RESULTS

18 bulls were included, and 17 were bucking bulls. Median age and duration of signs were 4.5 years and 23 days, respectively. The most common owner complaints were nonspecific signs (eg, separation from the herd, hypo- or anorexia, and weight loss; n = 10) and suspected horn or sinus infection (7). Only 8 bulls had nasal discharge, and only 7 of the 17 bulls for which the rectal temperature was recorded were febrile. Results of radiography indicated frontal sinusitis in 12 of 13 bulls, with increased opacity of the affected sinus (n = 11) noted most commonly. Seventeen bulls were discharged from the hospital alive. Long-term follow-up was obtained for 14 bulls, including 13 bucking bulls. All 14 bulls recovered fully, and 9 of the 13 bucking bulls performed well after treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that frontal sinusitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in beef cattle examined for nonspecific clinical signs and that, with appropriate treatment, the prognosis is good for long-term survival in affected beef cattle.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride to cattle induced analgesia of the perineum and to compare analgesic and systemic effects of epidural versus IM administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 μg/kg in cattle.

Animals

18 healthy adult cows.

Procedure

6 cows were given detomidine by epidural administration, 6 were given detomidine IM, and 6 (control group) were not given detomidine. Analgesia was assessed by determining responses to needle pinpricks in the perineum and flank and by applying electrical stimuli to the perineum and flank and determining the voltage that induced an avoidance response. Degree of sedation and ataxia were scored, and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and frequency of ruminal contractions were measured.

Results

Epidural and IM administration of detomidine induced comparable degrees of analgesia of the perineum and flank, accompanied by moderate sedation and ataxia, hypertension, cardiorespiratory depression, and rumen hypomotility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Epidural and IM administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 µg/kg induced similar analgesic and systemic effects in cattle. Epidural administration of detomidine did not appear to be advantageous over IM administration. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1242–1247)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Mycobacterial culture was performed on colostrum, milk, and feces from 126 clinically normal cows of a single herd with high prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection. Thirty-six (28.6%) cows were determined to be shedding the organism in the feces. Of the 36 fecal culture-positive cows, M paratuberculosis was isolated from the colostrum of 8 (22.2%) and from the milk of 3 (8.3%). Cows that were heavy fecal shedders were more likely to shed the organism in the colostrum than were light fecal shedders.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antemortem core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes could be used to distinguish between inflammation and lymphosarcoma in cattle.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—25 cattle with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.

Procedures—Antemortem biopsies of the selected lymph nodes were performed with an 18-gauge, 12-cm core needle biopsy instrument. Fine-needle aspirates were performed with a 20-gauge, 4-cm needle. Specimens were analyzed by pathologists who were unaware of clinical findings and final necropsy findings, and specimens were categorized as reactive, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic for comparison with necropsy results.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity of core needle biopsy ranged from 38% to 67% and from 80% to 25%, respectively. Sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration ranged from 41% to 53%, and specificity was 100%. Predictive values for positive test results ranged from 77% to 89% for core needle biopsy and were 100% for fine-needle aspiration. Predictive values for negative test results were low for both core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that core needle biopsy and fineneedle aspiration can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of bovine enzootic lymphosarcoma. Results of fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes were more specific and more predictive for a positive test result than were results of core needle biopsy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association