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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of commonly used anesthetics administered as single bolus injections on splenic volume.

Animals—10 adult Beagles.

Procedures—A randomized crossover study was conducted. Computed tomography was performed on dogs to determine baseline splenic volume and changes after IV injection of assigned drug treatments. Dogs were allowed to acclimate for 10 minutes in a plastic crate before acquisition of abdominal CT images. Treatments were administered at 7-day intervals and consisted of IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5 mL), acepromazine maleate (0.03 mg/kg), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg), and dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg/kg) to all 10 dogs; thiopental (8 mg/kg) to 5 of the dogs; and propofol (5 mg/kg) to the other 5 dogs. Splenic volume was calculated from the CT images with image processing software. A repeated-measures ANOVA was performed, followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test.

Results—No significant difference in splenic volume was detected between the acepromazine, propofol, and thiopental treatments, but splenic volume was greater with these drugs than with saline solution, hydromorphone, and dexmedetomidine. Splenic volume was less with hydromorphone, compared with dexmedetomidine, but splenic volume with hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine did not differ significantly from that with saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of acepromazine, thiopental, and propofol resulted in splenomegaly. Dexmedetomidine did not alter splenic volume. Hydromorphone slightly decreased splenic volume. Propofol should not be used when splenomegaly is not desirable, whereas hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine may be used when it is best to avoid splenic enlargement.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA).

ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs.

PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions. Three measurements of peak velocity at end expiration were obtained for each vessel, and the mean was calculated. Results were compared between IMHA and control groups.

RESULTS Mean ± SD blood flow velocity in the CVC differed between control (63.0 ± 18.6 cm/s) and IMHA (104 ± 36.9 cm/s) groups. Variance in dogs with IMHA was significantly greater than that for the clinically normal dogs. No significant difference in blood flow velocity in the PV was detected between IMHA and control dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Higher blood flow velocities were detected by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in the CVC of dogs with naturally occurring IMHA and may be used to predict anemia in patients suspected of having IMHA.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use CT measurements to define the body surface area (BSA) formula in American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and calculate the species-specific shape constant (K) to suggest chemotherapeutic doses.

ANIMALS

12 American bullfrogs owned by the North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Laboratory Animal Resources underwent CT scans without anesthesia or sedation in November 2022.

METHODS

As part of this prospective study, each American bullfrog underwent a complete physical exam and CT scan. 3-D surface models were created using CT data, and the resulting measurements were used for BSA calculations. Animals were grouped by sex. Nonlinear regression analysis of BSA versus body weight was performed, and a species-specific formula was derived for calculating BSA in American bullfrogs.

RESULTS

The mean body weight of the bullfrogs was 354 grams. The mean CT-derived BSA was 414.92 cm2. The calculated K constant was 8.28 for the 12 American bullfrogs, and the CT-derived BSA formula was BSA in cm2 = 8.28 X (body weight in g)2/3. The K constant was 8.07 for females and 8.44 for males and was not significantly different between sexes (P = .5).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that the species-specific K constant for American bullfrogs is 8.28. This is the first calculated K constant that exists for amphibians to our knowledge.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare thoracic ultrasonographic findings in healthy horses before and after general anesthesia for elective MRI utilizing a recently developed ultrasonographic scoring system to aid clinicians in the early identification of pneumonia following anesthesia.

ANIMALS

13 adult horses > 3 years of age.

PROCEDURES

Prior to anesthesia, horses underwent a thorough physical examination, CBC, thoracic radiography, and thoracic ultrasonography. Horses were then anesthetized for elective MRI, and thoracic ultrasonography was repeated within 3 hours after recovery. Thoracic ultrasonographic findings were scored utilizing a recently developed scoring system, and scores were compared before and after anesthesia.

RESULTS

There was no significant difference identified in total thoracic ultrasonography score before and after anesthesia, and there was no correlation between thoracic ultrasonography score following anesthesia and the body weight of the horse, the time recumbent, and the dependent side.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In healthy horses undergoing anesthesia for elective imaging, there was no significant change in thoracic ultrasonographic findings 3 hours after recovery from anesthesia. These data can aid clinicians in determining the clinical significance of ultrasonographic changes in the lung in the immediate postanesthetic period.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the K-constant for body surface area calculation from body weight in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) through the use of computed tomography (CT) measurements.

ANIMALS

12 adult corn snakes held by North Carolina State University for research purposes underwent CT between November 2022 and January 2023.

METHODS

Each snake had a CT scan, physical examination, and body weight measurement. CT images were uploaded into software able to perform 3-D reconstruction and measure body surface area. The species-specific K-constant was determined using nonlinear regression analysis between body surface area and (body weight in grams)2/3.

RESULTS

The mean body weight of the 12 adult corn snakes was 228 g, with a mean body surface area of 505.1 cm2. The calculated K-constant was 13.6 (P < .001). The resulting formula for body surface area in corn snakes is BSA in cm2 = 13.6 X (body weight in grams)2/3.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The body surface area formula developed for corn snakes will allow for improved dosing accuracy for medications with low therapeutic safety margins. Additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of individual medications.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare incidence of diabetes mellitus in cats that had undergone renal transplantation with incidence in cats with chronic renal failure, compare mortality rates in cats that underwent renal transplantation and did or did not develop diabetes mellitus, and identify potential risk factors for development of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—187 cats that underwent renal transplantation.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed.

Results—26 of the 187 (13.9%) cats developed PTDM, with the incidence of PTDM being 66 cases/1,000 cat years at risk. By contrast, the incidence of diabetes mellitus among a comparison population of 178 cats with chronic renal failure that did not undergo renal transplantation was 17.9 cases/1,000 cat years at risk, and cats that underwent renal trans-plantation were 5.45 times as likely to develop diabetes mellitus as were control cats with chronic renal failure. The mortality rate among cats with PTDM was 2.38 times the rate among cats that underwent renal transplantation but did not develop PTDM. Age, sex, body weight, and percentage change in body weight were not found to be significantly associ-ated with development of PTDM.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats that undergo renal transplantation have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus, compared with cats with chronic renal failure, and that mortality rate is higher for cats that develop PTDM than for cats that do not.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association