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Abstract

Objective—To determine the spectrum and frequency of abnormalities for low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of clinically normal Doberman Pinschers and Foxhounds.

Animals—37 clinically normal dogs (20 Doberman Pinschers and 17 Foxhounds).

Procedures—For each dog, MRI of the cervical vertebrae (sagittal, dorsal, and transverse T1- and T2-weighted images) was performed. Variables assessed were intervertebral disk degeneration, disk-associated compression, compression of the dorsal portion of the spinal cord, vertebral body abnormalities, and changes in intraparenchymal signal intensity. Associations between these variables and age, breed, sex, and location of the assessed intervertebral disk spaces were evaluated.

Results—Severe MRI abnormalities were detected in 17 dogs, including complete disk degeneration (n = 4 dogs), spinal cord compression (3), or both (10). Vertebral body abnormalities were detected in 8 dogs, and hyperintense signal intensity was detected in 2 dogs. Severity of disk degeneration and disk-associated compression was significantly associated with increased age. There was a significant association between disk degeneration, disk-as-sociated compression, and compression of the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord and location of the assessed intervertebral disk space, with the intervertebral disk spaces in the caudal portion of the cervical region being more severely affected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abnormalities were commonly seen on MRI examinations of the caudal portion of the cervical vertebral column and spinal cord of clinically normal Doberman Pinchers and Foxhounds. Such lesions were probably part of the typical spinal cord degeneration associated with the aging process of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess long-term effects and risk factors for the efficacy of hyperimmunization protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) during a longitudinal field study of dairy and dairy-beef mixed farms.

Animals—Approximately 7,700 cows from 72 farms.

Procedures—Farms were assigned to 3 treatment groups (hyperimmunization groups [HIGs] 1 and 2, which were hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E [gE]–deleted marker vaccines, and a nonintervention group [NIG]). Cattle in HIG 1 were initially vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine, whereas cattle in HIG 2 were initially vaccinated with an inactivated-virus vaccine. Cattle in both HIGs received booster inoculations with inactivated-virus vaccines at 6-month intervals. The risk for gE seroconversion was compared among experimental groups via a shared frailty model with a piecewise constant baseline risk to correct for seasonal and secular effects.

Results—Risk for gE seroconversion significantly decreased over time for the HIGs, compared with the NIG. Seasonal changes in the risk of gE seroconversion were detected, with a higher risk during winter periods, compared with grazing periods. No significant difference was detected between HIGs 1 and 2. The only significant risk factor was the number of buildings for cattle on a farm; the higher the number of buildings, the lower the risk for gE seroconversion. Prevalence of IBR decreased over time in both HIGs but remained constant or increased in the NIG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperimmunization via repeated administration of attenuated and inactivated-virus gE-deleted marker vaccines as well as inactivated-virus vaccines may provide a method for control of IBR.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics and vascular patterns of adrenal gland tumors in dogs and determine whether those features are indicative of malignancy or histologic type of tumor.

Animals—14 dogs with 16 adrenal gland lesions (10 carcinomas [8 dogs], 3 adenomas [3 dogs], and 3 pheochromocytomas [3 dogs]).

Procedures—Unsedated dogs with adrenal gland lesions underwent B-mode ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography ≤ 48 hours before adrenalectomy; contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic examinations were video-recorded. Macroscopic evaluation of the adrenal gland lesions and histologic examination of removed adrenal gland tissues were subsequently performed. Surgical and histopathologic findings and the ultrasonographic and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded for the various tumor types. Time-intensity curves were generated from the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic recordings and used to calculate regional blood volume (value proportional to area under the curve) and mean transit time (time the lesion began to enhance to the half-peak intensity).

Results—In adrenal gland carcinomas, tortuous feeding vessels were noticeable during the arterial and venous phases of contrast enhancement. Heterogeneity of contrast enhancement was evident only in malignant tumors. Compared with adenomas, adrenal gland carcinomas and pheochromocytomas had significantly less regional blood volume. Mean transit times were significantly shorter in adrenal gland carcinomas and pheochromocytomas than in adenomas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For dogs, evaluation of the vascular pattern and contrast-enhancement characteristics of adrenal gland tumors by means of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may be useful in assessment of malignancy and tumor type.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and rhinoscopic features of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—All dogs had clinical signs of chronic nasal disease; the diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was made on the basis of positive results for at least 2 diagnostic tests (serology, cytology, histology, or fungal culture) and detection of typical intrasinusal and intranasal fungal colonies and turbinate destruction via rhinoscopy. Radiography, MRI, and CT were performed under general anesthesia. Rhinoscopy was repeated to evaluate lesions and initiate treatment. Findings of radiography, MRI, CT, and rhinoscopy were compared.

Results—MRI and CT revealed lesions suggestive of nasal aspergillosis more frequently than did radiography. Computed tomography was the best technique for detection of cortical bone lesions; the nature of abnormal soft tissue, however, could not be identified. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed evaluation of lesions of the frontal bone and was especially useful for differentiating between a thickened mucosa and secretions or fungal colonies; however, fungal colonies could not be differentiated from secretions. Rhinoscopy allowed identification of the nature of intranasal and intrasinusal soft tissue but was not as useful as CT and MRI for defining the extent of lesions and provided no information regarding bone lesions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The value of CT and MRI for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was similar and greater than that of radiography. Rhinoscopy is necessary because it is the only technique that allows direct visualization of fungal colonies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1703–1712)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the feasibility of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for detection of changes in renal blood flow in dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.

Animals—11 Beagles

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: oral administration of hydrocortisone (9.6 mg/kg; n = 6) or a placebo (5; control group) twice a day for 4 months, after which the dose was tapered until treatment cessation at 6 months. Before treatment began and at 1, 4, and 6 months after, CEUS of the left kidney was performed by IV injection of ultrasonography microbubbles. Images were digitized, and time-intensity curves were generated from regions of interest in the renal cortex and medulla. Changes in blood flow were determined as measured via contrast agent (baseline [background] intensity, peak ntensity, area under the curve, arrival time of contrast agent, time-to-peak intensity, and speed of contrast agent transport).

Results—Significant increases in peak intensity, compared with that in control dogs, were observed in the renal cortex and medulla of hydrocortisone-treated dogs 1 and 4 months after treatment began. Baseline intensity changed similarly. A significant increase from control values was also apparent in area under the curve for the renal cortex 4 months after hydrocortisone treatment began and in the renal medulla 1 and 4 months after treatment began. A significant time effect with typical time course was observed, corresponding with the period during which hydrocortisone was administered. No difference was evident in the other variables between treated and control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Quantitative CEUS allowed detection of differences in certain markers of renal blood flow between dogs treated orally with and without hydrocortisone. Additional studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of quantitative CEUS in the diagnosis of diffuse renal lesions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism of hyperplastic adrenal glands in dogs via contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

Animals—12 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and 7 healthy control dogs ≥ 7 years old.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to the PDH and control groups and to small-breed (n = 6), medium-breed (4), and large-breed (9) subgroups. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of both adrenal glands in each dog was performed with IV injections of contrast agent. Time-intensity curves for the adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, and ipsilateral renal artery of both adrenal glands were generated. Perfusion variables (time to peak [TTP], upslope of wash-in phase, and downslope of washout phase) were calculated.

Results—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography revealed no qualitative difference between PDH and control groups. Quantitatively, TTPs were longer in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the PDH group, compared with values for the control group, particularly in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup. Washout downslopes were lower for the renal artery, adrenal cortex, and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup between the PDH and control groups. No other perfusion variables differed between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands in dogs with PDH revealed a delayed TTP in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, compared with values for control dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to detect vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether reference ranges for clinically normal dogs and dogs with PDH can be determined and applied in clinical settings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the use of ultrasonography to assess nonunion of fractures in dogs and to compare results of ultrasonography, radiography, and histologic examination.

Sample Population—8 nonunion fractures in 6 dogs (1 each in 5 dogs and 3 in 1 dog); dogs ranged from 7 to 94 months of age and weighed 6 to 30 kg.

Procedures—Diagnostic assessment consisted of complete clinical and orthopedic examinations, radiography, B-mode (brightness mode) ultrasonography, and power Doppler ultrasonography. Biopsy samples were obtained during surgery for histologic examination. They were stained with H&E and immunolabeled by use of anti-CD31 antibodies. Correlations of power Doppler score, power Doppler count, vessel area, and radiographic prediction with the mean number of vessels counted per hpf were derived.

Results—Radiographically, 7 of 8 nonunion fractures were diagnosed as atrophic and were therefore estimated to be nonviable. Vascularity of nonunion fractures during power Doppler ultrasonography ranged from nonvascularized to highly vascularized. Absolute vessel count during histologic examination ranged from 0 to 63 vessels/hpf; 5 nonunion sites had a mean count of > 10 vessels/hpf. Vascularity during power Doppler ultrasonography was highly correlated with the number of vessels per hpf, whereas the correlation between the radiographic assessment and histologic evaluation was low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radiographic prediction of the viability of nonunion fractures underestimated the histologically assessed vascularity of the tissue. Power Doppler ultrasonography provided a more accurate estimation of the viability of the tissue and therefore the necessity for debridement and autografts during revision surgery.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To quantify the degree of dural compression and assess the association between site and direction of compression and articular process (AP) size and degree of dural compression with CT myelography.

ANIMALS

26 client-oriented horses with ataxia.

PROCEDURES

Spinal cord-to-dura and AP-to-cross-sectional area of the C6 body ratios (APBRs) were calculated for each noncompressive site and site that had > 50% compression of the subarachnoid space. Site of maximum compression had the largest spinal cord-to-dura ratio. Fisher exact test and linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between site and direction of compression and mean or maximum APBR and spinal cord-todura ratio, respectively.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD spinal cord-to-dura ratio was 0.31 ± 0.044 (range, 0.20 to 0.41) for noncompressive sites and 0.44 ± 0.078 (0.29 to 0.60) for sites of maximum compression. Sites of maximum compression were intervertebral and extra-dural, most frequently at C6 through 7 (n = 10), followed by C3 through 4 (6). Thirteen horses had dorsolateral and lateral compression at the AP joints, secondary to AP (n = 7) or soft tissue proliferation (6). Site significantly affected direction of compression, and directions of compression from occiput through C4 were primarily ventral and lateral, whereas from C6 through T1 were primarily dorsal and dorsolateral. No linear relationship was identified between mean or maximum APBR and spinal cord-to-dura ratio.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CT myelography may be useful for examination of horses with suspected cervical compressive myelopathy. Degree of compression can be assessed quantitatively, and site of compression significantly affected direction of compression.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe articular process joints (APJs) of the cervical spine in horses on the basis of CT and to determine whether abnormalities were associated with clinical signs.

ANIMALS

86 client-owned warmblood horses.

PROCEDURES

Horses that underwent CT of the cervical spine between January 2015 and January 2017 were eligible for study inclusion. Medical records were reviewed for age, body weight, breed, sex, history, clinical signs, and CT findings. Horses were divided into 3 case groups and 1 control group on the basis of clinical signs.

RESULTS

70 warmblood horses were cases, and 16 were controls. Abnormalities were more frequent from C5 through T1 and were severe in only horses from the case group. Narrowing of the intervertebral foramen was common in horses in the case group (85.7%), often owing to enlarged, misshaped articular processes, followed by degenerative changes, periarticular osteolysis, cyst-like lesions, and fragmentation. High articular process-to-vertebral body (C6) ratio (APBR) and high-grade narrowing of the intervertebral foramen and periarticular osteolysis were noted for horses with forelimb lameness or signs of cervical pain or stiffness. No association was identified between APBR and age or sex. An APBR > 1.5 was found in only horses in the case group, and 32.3% of APJs with APBRs > 1.5 did not have any degenerative changes and periarticular osteolysis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CT was useful to identify abnormalities of the APJs of the cervical spine. An association existed between CT findings and clinical signs. The APJs can be enlarged without concurrent degenerative changes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation for differentiating between clinically relevant and clinically irrelevant cervical spinal cord compression on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Design—Validation study.

Animals—Clinically normal Doberman Pinschers without (n = 11) and with (6) spinal cord compression on MRI and 16 Doberman Pinschers with disk-associated wobbler syndrome (DAWS).

Procedures—After dogs were sedated, transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials were recorded from the extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECRM) and cranial tibial muscle (CTM). Onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify spinal cord compression.

Results—There were significant differences in ECRM and CTM onset latencies between Doberman Pinschers with DAWS and each of the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs, but there were no significant differences in ECRM and CTM onset latencies between the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs. There were significant differences in CTM peak-to-peak amplitudes between Doberman Pinschers with DAWS and each of the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs, but there were no significant differences in ECRM peak-to-peak amplitudes among groups or in CTM peak-to-peak amplitudes between the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs. There was a significant correlation between severity of spinal cord compression and ECRM onset latency, CTM onset latency, and CTM peak-to-peak amplitude.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate between clinically relevant and clinically irrelevant spinal cord compression identified on MRI alone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association