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Abstract

Objective—To determine association between exposure to Neospora caninum and milk production in dairy cows.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—565 Holstein cows.

Procedure—Cows were classified as seropositive or seronegative to N caninum within 7 days after calving by use of a kinetic ELISA. Milk production was compared between seropositive and seronegative cows.

Results—On the basis of 305-day mature equivalent milk production data, seropositive cows produced less milk (2.8 lb/cow per day) than did seronegative cows. In addition, analysis of results throughout the first 300 days of lactation revealed that after adjusting for effects of lactation number, calving season, clinical mastitis, and lameness, milk weight of seropositive cows was 2.5 lb/cow per day less than that of seronegative cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to N caninum was associated with a 3 to 4% decrease in milk production. A decrease in milk production of 800 lb/cow for a typical 305-day lactation represents a loss of $128/cow. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:632–635)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare efficacy of topical treatment with oxytetracycline solution or 1 of 4 nonantibiotic solutions among dairy cows with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD).

Design

Randomized field trial.

Animals

66 cows in a single herd.

Procedure

Cows were randomly assigned to be treated with oxytetracycline solution; a commercial formulation of soluble copper, peroxide compound, and a cationic agent; 5% copper sulfate solution; acidified ionized copper solution; hydrogen peroxide-peroxyacetic acid solution; or tap water. Cows were examined 14 and 30 days after initial treatment. During each examination, pain and lesion scores were recorded.

Results

On the basis of pain and lesion scores, oxytetracycline and the commercial formulation appeared equally effective for treatment of PDD and significantly more effective than 5% copper sulfate solution, acidified ionized copper solution, hydrogen peroxide-peroxyacetic acid solution, and tap water. Proportions of cows with signs of pain or visible lesions after treatment were significantly lower for cows treated with oxytetracycline or the commercial formulation than for cows in the other groups.

Clinical Implications

Oxytetracycline and a commercial formulation of soluble copper, peroxide compound, and a cationic agent appeared to be effective for treatment of PDD in dairy cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:688–690)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To assess the effect of oral administration of CaCl2 gel on blood mineral concentrations, parturient disorders, reproductive performance, and milk production of dairy cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM).

Design

Randomized field trial.

Animals

20 cows that calved normally and were not treated with CaCl2 gel (group 1), 20 cows with RFM that were treated with CaCl2 gel (group 2), and 20 cows with RFM that were not treated with CaCl2 gel (group 3).

Procedure

Group-2 cows were treated orally with CaCl2 gel (54 g of calcium) 24 and 48 hours after parturition.

Results

Administration of CaCl2 gel 24 and 48 hours after parturition did not have a significant effect on serum normalized calcium, total calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus concentrations or on incidence of metritis or left displacement of the abomasum, days to first insemination, pregnancy status after first insemination, or milk production.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Administration of CaCl2 gel 24 and 48 hours after parturition did not have significant effect on blood mineral concentrations, parturient disorders, reproductive performance, and milk production in dairy cows with RFM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:72-76)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare 3 types of noxious stimuli applied to various anatomic areas of anesthetized dogs and rabbits for determination of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC).

Animals—10 dogs and 10 rabbits.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and halothane in a randomized order. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. The MAC was determined by skin incision on the lateral aspect of the chest; clamping of the tail, paw of the forelimb, and paw of the hind limb; and application of electrical current to the oral mucosa (dogs only), forelimb, and hind limb. The MAC was the end-tidal concentration midway between the value permitting and preventing purposeful movement in response to noxious stimuli.

Results—In dogs, mean ± SEM MAC for isoflurane was 1.27 ± 0.05% for clamping stimuli, 1.36 ± 0.04% for oral electrical stimulation, 1.35 ± 0.04% for electrical stimulation to the limbs, and 1.01 ± 0.07% for surgical incision. The MAC for halothane was 0.97 ± 0.03% for tail clamping, 0.96 ± 0.03% for clamping of the limbs, 1.04 ± 0.03% for electrical stimulation, and 0.75 ± 0.06% for surgical incision. In rabbits, MAC for isoflurane was 2.08 ± 0.02% for clamping stimuli, 2.04 ± 0.02% for electrical stimulation, and 0.90 ± 0.02% for surgical incision. The MAC for surgical incision was significantly lower than values for the other methods in both species.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of electrical current and clamping techniques resulted in similar MAC values. Surgical incision underestimated MAC values in dogs and rabbits. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:957–962)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess awareness, perceived relevance, and acceptance of surveillance and infection control practices at a large animal referral hospital among referring veterinarians and clients who sent horses to the facility for veterinary care.

Design—Survey.

Sample—57 referring veterinarians and 594 clients.

Procedures—A 15-question survey targeting Salmonella enterica as an important pathogen of interest in horses was sent to clients who sent ≥ 1 horse to the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital for veterinary care during July 1, 2007, through July 1, 2011, and to veterinarians who had referred horses to the same hospital prior to July 1, 2011. Responses were summarized with descriptive statistics. The χ2 test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine associations among variables of interest.

Results—Survey response rates were low (57/467 [12%] for veterinarians and 594/3,095 [19%] for clients). Significantly more (35/56 [63%]) veterinarians than clients (227/585 [39%]) were aware that the hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program. Most veterinarians (56/57 [98%]) and clients (554/574 [97%]) indicated that sampling and testing of horses to detect Salmonella shedding in feces at admission and during hospitalization was justified. In addition, on a scale of 1 (not important) to 10 (very important), veterinarians and clients indicated it was very important (median score, 10 [interquartile range, 8 to 10] for both groups) that a referral hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Survey results indicated that awareness of hospital surveillance and infection control practices was higher among veterinarians than clients, and these practices were considered relevant and well-accepted among participant veterinarians and clients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify factors associated with anhidrosis in horses in Florida.

Design—Cross-sectional study and case-control study.

Animals—4,620 horses on 500 farms.

Procedures—A questionnaire was structured and mailed to farm owners or managers to obtain information related to diagnosis of anhidrosis in horses and exposure factors associated with this condition. The frequency of investigated farm- and animal-level factors was compared between farms and horses affected and not affected with anhidrosis, respectively.

Results—The prevalence of anhidrosis was 11% at the farm level and 2% at the animal level. The odds of anhidrosis were 2.13 and 4.40 times as high in farms located in central and southern Florida, respectively, compared with odds for farms in northern Florida. The odds of anhidrosis were 5.26 and 15.40 times as high in show and riding instruction operations, respectively, compared with odds for ranch operations. At the animal level, breed (Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses), foaling place (western or midwestern region of the United States), and family history of anhidrosis were significantly associated with anhidrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provides new information on the prevalence of and factors for anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Horses with a family history of anhidrosis should be examined by a veterinarian for diagnosis of this condition before they are exposed to exercise in a hot and humid climate.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To implement a disease monitoring system in federal, municipal, and private abattoirs in Baja California, Mexico and to estimate annual prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in beef and dairy cattle slaughtered and inspected in 1995 and 1996.

Design

Epidemiologic survey.

Animals

About 200,000 cattle (95% beef, 5% dairy).

Procedures

Lymph node and tissue specimens with lesions suggestive of TB were fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were stained with H&E and Ziehl-Neelsen and examined for typical tuberculous lesions and acid-fast bacilli. Annual prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were estimated.

Results

Prevalence of TB in all slaughtered cattle was 0.12 and 0.46% in 1995 and 1996, respectively (beef cattle, 0.02 and 0.05%, respectively; dairy cattle, 2.0 and 8.3%, respectively). Tuberculosis cases/1,000 slaughtered cattle were linearly associated with monthly volumes of tissue submissions.

Clinical Implications

It is critical to quantify the monitoring activity at abattoirs to better estimate the prevalence of TB in slaughtered cattle. Annual prevalence of TB was significantly greater in dairy cattle than in beef cattle. Veterinarians and cattle producers in this region are encouraged to develop and work on herd plans aimed at controlling and eradicating TB. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:709–711)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An elisa was compared with the plaque-reduction serum neutralization (prsn) test, for detection of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) antibodies in cattle in a vesicular stomatitis enzootic region of Mexico. A total of 325 bovine serum samples were screened for vsv antibodies. The prsn test was performed, using Vero cells. The elisa contained gradient-purified vsv Indiana (Lab strain) and vsv New Jersey (Hazelhurst) as the antigens. Regression analysis and weighted kappa statistic were used to estimate measures of agreement between the 2 assays for detection of vsv antibodies. The elisa method proved useful for sero-diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis The elisa and prsn test results were highly correlated for detection of vsv antibodies.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether passive transfer of IgG in neonatal kittens affects plasma opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses to bacteria in vitro.

Animals—22 kittens from 6 specific pathogen-free queens.

Procedure—Kittens were randomized at birth into the following treatment groups: colostrum-fed, colostrum-deprived, or colostrum-deprived supplemented with feline or equine IgG. Blood samples were collected at intervals from birth to 56 days of age. Plasma IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion assay. Neutrophil function was assessed by a flow cytometry assay providing simultaneous measurement of bacteria-induced phagocytosis and oxidative burst. The opsonic capacity of kitten plasma was determined in an opsonophagocytosis assay with bacteria incubated in untreated or heat-inactivated plasma.

Results—Among treatment groups, there were no significant differences in neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses to bacteria or opsonic capacity of plasma. In all samples of plasma, inactivation of complement and other heat-labile opsonins significantly reduced the opsonic capacity. Plasma IgG concentrations in kittens did not correlate with neutrophil function or plasma opsonic capacity before or after inactivation of complement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The plasma opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses in vitro of kittens receiving passive transfer of IgG via colostrum intake or IgG supplementation and those deprived of colostrum were similar. The alternate complement pathway or other heat-labile opsonins may be more important than IgG in bacterial opsonization and phagocytosis. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:538–543)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize lameness during training and compare exercise variables and financial returns among yearling Thoroughbreds that were bought for the purpose of resale for profit.

Animals—40 yearling Thoroughbreds.

Design—Prospective study.

Procedures—Horses purchased at yearling sales (summer 2004) were trained prior to resale at 2-year-olds in training sales (spring 2005). Horses were monitored daily for diagnosis and treatment of lameness during training. Selected variables, including sex, age, purchase price, lameness, distance (No. of furlongs) galloped during training, and financial returns, were compared among horses that had performance speeds (assessed at 2-year-olds in training sales) classified as fast, average, or slow.

Results—37 of 40 horses became lame during training, most commonly because of joint injury. Eighteen of the lame horses had hind limb injuries only; 5 horses had injuries in forelimbs and hind limbs. The frequency of new cases of lameness increased as the date of the 2-year-olds in training sales approached. At the sales, 4, 21, and 15 horses were classified as fast, average, or slow, respectively; median financial return was slightly (but significantly) different among horses classified as fast ($14,000), average ($0), or slow (–$8,000).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of lameness during training in yearling horses purchased for the purpose of resale for profit was high. Lameness more commonly affected hind limbs than forelimbs and was attributable to joint injury in most horses. Financial returns differed between horses classified as fast and average or slow at the 2-year-olds in training sales.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association